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The other study sub-area is Tungabhadra Catchment (up to Haralahalli gauge station) which is a peninsular region, as shown in Figure 2. It is part of the Krishna River Basin. The study area falls approximately in between ∼75°8 E to ∼76°16 E and ∼13°50 N to ∼14°53 N. The whole area is about 7,566.63 km2 and is delineated into 16 sub-basins (Table 2). The Tungabhadra River is formed by the confluence of its two main tributaries, Tunga and Bhadra. Tunga and Bhadra rivers originate at Varaha Parvatha in the Western Ghats in Karnataka in India. Finally, the two rivers meet at Koodli near Holehonnu to form the Tungabhadra River. The average annual precipitation is between ∼827 mm and ∼2,220 mm with a mean of ∼1,424 mm for the period from 1986 to 2005. 75% to 80% of the total rainfall comes from the south-west monsoon during the period mid-June to mid-October. The mean maximum monthly temperature varies from ∼26.3 °C to ∼35.5 °C and the mean minimum monthly temperature varies from ∼13.8 °C to ∼22.3 °C for the time period of 1986–2005.
Table 2

Details of study area of Tungabhadra River Basin (up to Haralahalli gauge station)

Sub-basinArea (km2)LatitudeLongitudeElevation (m)Minimum elevation (m)Maximum elevation (m)
165.3 14.783 75.613 481.70 431 615 
3.5 14.802 75.678 440.68 435 464 
283.68 14.651 75.565 507.46 435 695 
511.67 14.699 75.823 477.23 435 786 
611.61 14.556 75.946 513.05 436 722 
181.99 14.574 75.805 472.46 436 675 
77.63 14.501 75.742 460.5 441 500 
278.26 14.397 75.797 488.94 441 691 
1,233.57 14.223 75.461 524.97 443 868 
10 276.42 14.167 75.235 569.91 497 756 
11 663.32 14.283 76.027 551.24 463 917 
12 381.89 14.004 75.391 577.63 497 897 
13 690.89 14.326 75.647 509.72 443 807 
14 397.7 14.118 75.554 564.2 459 938 
15 373.65 14.081 75.698 522.73 459 773 
16 1,435.56 14.055 76.012 584.79 463 1,055 
Sub-basinArea (km2)LatitudeLongitudeElevation (m)Minimum elevation (m)Maximum elevation (m)
165.3 14.783 75.613 481.70 431 615 
3.5 14.802 75.678 440.68 435 464 
283.68 14.651 75.565 507.46 435 695 
511.67 14.699 75.823 477.23 435 786 
611.61 14.556 75.946 513.05 436 722 
181.99 14.574 75.805 472.46 436 675 
77.63 14.501 75.742 460.5 441 500 
278.26 14.397 75.797 488.94 441 691 
1,233.57 14.223 75.461 524.97 443 868 
10 276.42 14.167 75.235 569.91 497 756 
11 663.32 14.283 76.027 551.24 463 917 
12 381.89 14.004 75.391 577.63 497 897 
13 690.89 14.326 75.647 509.72 443 807 
14 397.7 14.118 75.554 564.2 459 938 
15 373.65 14.081 75.698 522.73 459 773 
16 1,435.56 14.055 76.012 584.79 463 1,055 
Figure 2

Study area of Tungabhadra Basin (up to Haralahalli gauge station).

Figure 2

Study area of Tungabhadra Basin (up to Haralahalli gauge station).

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