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The precipitation and temperature data are taken from the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD). Annual precipitation and annual ET0 raster are generated using inverse-distance weighting method for each basin for each corresponding time period. Spatial variation of precipitation and ET0 are shown in Figures 3 and 4, respectively, for both study sub-areas. Plant available water content (PAWC) has been calculated for the two regions using soil-plant-air-water (SPAW) software (Bernardo et al. 1988) depending upon the soil properties. A detailed description of different LULC classes is provided in Table 3.
Table 3

Different study areas with their corresponding LULC classes with % area, root depth, and KC value (LULC <2% is not shown)

Study areaLULC class% areaKCRoot depth
Sutlej River Basin (up to Kasol gauge station) Barren 38.84 0.2 N.A. 
Shrubs 26.1 0.6 1,500 
Snow and glacier 24.18 N.A. 
Water 3.63 N.A. 
Urban 3.55 0.4 N.A. 
Forest 2.09 2,500 
Tungabhadra River Basin (up to Haralahalli gauge station) Crop land 62.55 0.75 1,500 
Forest 15.76 5,000 
Fallow 8.4 0.2 500 
Scrub 7.16 0.6 2,000 
Urban 2.84 0.5 N.A. 
Water bodies 2.27 N.A. 
Study areaLULC class% areaKCRoot depth
Sutlej River Basin (up to Kasol gauge station) Barren 38.84 0.2 N.A. 
Shrubs 26.1 0.6 1,500 
Snow and glacier 24.18 N.A. 
Water 3.63 N.A. 
Urban 3.55 0.4 N.A. 
Forest 2.09 2,500 
Tungabhadra River Basin (up to Haralahalli gauge station) Crop land 62.55 0.75 1,500 
Forest 15.76 5,000 
Fallow 8.4 0.2 500 
Scrub 7.16 0.6 2,000 
Urban 2.84 0.5 N.A. 
Water bodies 2.27 N.A. 

N.A., not applicable.

Figure 3

Spatial variation of average annual precipitation of (a) Sutlej River Basin (up to Kasol gauge station) (1989–2005) and (b) Tungabhadra River Catchment (up to Haralahalli gauge station) (1986–2005).

Figure 3

Spatial variation of average annual precipitation of (a) Sutlej River Basin (up to Kasol gauge station) (1989–2005) and (b) Tungabhadra River Catchment (up to Haralahalli gauge station) (1986–2005).

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Figure 4

Spatial variation of average annual ET0 of (a) Sutlej River Basin (up to Kasol gauge station) (1989–2005) and (b) Tungabhadra River Basin (up to Haralahalli gauge station) (1986–2005).

Figure 4

Spatial variation of average annual ET0 of (a) Sutlej River Basin (up to Kasol gauge station) (1989–2005) and (b) Tungabhadra River Basin (up to Haralahalli gauge station) (1986–2005).

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