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Table 3 shows mean ion concentrations calculated from raw data and classified into the respective cluster. The NO3 for cluster-3 indicates a higher mean value than 50 mg L−1 which is the maximum contamination level recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO 2011) for drinking water. The NO3 for cluster-2 meets the WHO standard. However, it exceeds 13 mg L−1 which is the maximum nitrate concentration unaffected by human activities (Eckhardt & Stackelberg 1995). It confirms that the two clusters include polluted water as mentioned above. Cluster-1, -4, and -5 display much lower mean NO3 concentrations. An NO3 concentration exceeding the maximum concentration level recommended by the WHO has also been reported in other studies (e.g., Diédhiou et al. 2012; Hansen et al. 2012; Liu et al. 2015; Dragon et al. 2016; Matiatos 2016). In these investigations, the maximum NO3 concentration ranged from 91 to 855 mg L−1.

Table 3

Mean ion concentrations calculated from raw data and classified into clusters

 Cl (mg L−1)NO3 (mg L−1)SO42– (mg L−1)HCO3 (mg L−1)Na+ (mg L−1)K+ (mg L−1)Mg2+ (mg L−1)Ca2+ (mg L−1)
Cluster-1 5.1 9.9 3.2 37.7 6.5 3.4 3.2 8.7 
Cluster-2 14.3 42.1 22.5 39.0 11.2 6.2 8.1 20.5 
Cluster-3 21.3 78.8 37.7 27.5 14.4 8.6 11.2 31.5 
Cluster-4 6.4 9.9 10.5 108.5 11.1 4.9 10.6 21.0 
Cluster-5 6.8 6.2 41.3 175.4 25.1 7.9 17.6 33.5 
 Cl (mg L−1)NO3 (mg L−1)SO42– (mg L−1)HCO3 (mg L−1)Na+ (mg L−1)K+ (mg L−1)Mg2+ (mg L−1)Ca2+ (mg L−1)
Cluster-1 5.1 9.9 3.2 37.7 6.5 3.4 3.2 8.7 
Cluster-2 14.3 42.1 22.5 39.0 11.2 6.2 8.1 20.5 
Cluster-3 21.3 78.8 37.7 27.5 14.4 8.6 11.2 31.5 
Cluster-4 6.4 9.9 10.5 108.5 11.1 4.9 10.6 21.0 
Cluster-5 6.8 6.2 41.3 175.4 25.1 7.9 17.6 33.5 

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