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Remotely sensed data were obtained from MODIS products (see details in Table 1) because it provides surface observations for regional/basin water management. MODIS is the key instrument aboard the Aqua and Terra satellites, acquiring data in 36 spectral bands. The primary remotely sensed inputs to the METRIC algorithm are normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), surface emissivity, broadband surface albedo, and land surface temperature. The MODIS albedo is calculated as (Liang 2001):
formula
1
where α is the broadband albedo and rn represents spectral reflectance in band n.
Table 1

MODIS products

MODIS standard productsParameterSpatial resolutionTemporal resolution
MOD13A2 Vegetation indices (NDVI1,000 m 16 days 
MOD15A2 Leaf area index (LAI1,000 m 8 days 
MOD11A1 Land surface temperature and emissivity 1,000 m Daily 
MOD09GA Surface reflectance 1,000 m Daily 
MOD35L2 Cloud mask 1,000 m Daily 
MODIS standard productsParameterSpatial resolutionTemporal resolution
MOD13A2 Vegetation indices (NDVI1,000 m 16 days 
MOD15A2 Leaf area index (LAI1,000 m 8 days 
MOD11A1 Land surface temperature and emissivity 1,000 m Daily 
MOD09GA Surface reflectance 1,000 m Daily 
MOD35L2 Cloud mask 1,000 m Daily 
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