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The major land cover types in the study area are agriculture (50%), forest and semi-natural lands (46%), the remainder being water and wetlands (3%) and artificial areas (1%). It was found that open water bodies have the highest ET values followed by agricultural areas due to large-scale irrigation. The areas of the land cover categories and the corresponding amount of water consumption estimated in this study are given in Table 4. As shown, the water consumption in the study area is dominated by agricultural and forest/semi-natural lands which cover the majority of the landscape (94.8%), and the ET rate of these areas accounts for over 92% of total consumption during the study period. Agricultural lands (49.4%) have the highest consumption (50.4%) as regards to the integrated impact of land coverage on the ET rate.

Table 4

Land use and monthly ET

Land cover typeArea (km2)MonthsTotal ET (mm)Mean (mm)Standard deviation
Agricultural lands 1,757.7 April 176,064.0 95.9 26.8 
May 209,312.1 113.8 33.1 
June 232,404.6 126.0 32.2 
July 302,526.2 162.5 48.6 
August 196,126.0 104.8 32.0 
September 111,855.3 84.9 44.4 
Forest and semi-natural lands 1,615.8 April 148,655.0 90.4 35.5 
May 167,255.9 102.9 46.2 
June 188,299.9 114.2 49.1 
July 218,578.0 132.8 66.9 
August 198,516.7 114.6 42.8 
September 105,428.0 65.7 53.4 
Wetlands 3.1 April 229.6 57.5 37.3 
May 248.5 62.1 40.4 
June 414.4 103.6 20.0 
July 758.9 189.7 25.0 
August 663.8 166.0 21.1 
September 482.2 120.6 38.9 
Water bodies 75.7 April 12,108.4 126.1 32.1 
May 15,966.6 164.6 47.5 
June 17,782.5 183.3 40.0 
July 22,385.3 228.4 40.0 
August 18,510.4 210.3 38.8 
September 14,140.2 148.8 31.5 
Artificial areas 105.1 April 10,257.7 71.2 39.0 
May 13,441.4 87.3 50.1 
June 14.822.3 98.2 50.5 
July 18,145.3 121.8 58.5 
August 16,301.7 91.1 37.5 
September 6,844.1 54.8 45.7 
Land cover typeArea (km2)MonthsTotal ET (mm)Mean (mm)Standard deviation
Agricultural lands 1,757.7 April 176,064.0 95.9 26.8 
May 209,312.1 113.8 33.1 
June 232,404.6 126.0 32.2 
July 302,526.2 162.5 48.6 
August 196,126.0 104.8 32.0 
September 111,855.3 84.9 44.4 
Forest and semi-natural lands 1,615.8 April 148,655.0 90.4 35.5 
May 167,255.9 102.9 46.2 
June 188,299.9 114.2 49.1 
July 218,578.0 132.8 66.9 
August 198,516.7 114.6 42.8 
September 105,428.0 65.7 53.4 
Wetlands 3.1 April 229.6 57.5 37.3 
May 248.5 62.1 40.4 
June 414.4 103.6 20.0 
July 758.9 189.7 25.0 
August 663.8 166.0 21.1 
September 482.2 120.6 38.9 
Water bodies 75.7 April 12,108.4 126.1 32.1 
May 15,966.6 164.6 47.5 
June 17,782.5 183.3 40.0 
July 22,385.3 228.4 40.0 
August 18,510.4 210.3 38.8 
September 14,140.2 148.8 31.5 
Artificial areas 105.1 April 10,257.7 71.2 39.0 
May 13,441.4 87.3 50.1 
June 14.822.3 98.2 50.5 
July 18,145.3 121.8 58.5 
August 16,301.7 91.1 37.5 
September 6,844.1 54.8 45.7 

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