Abstract

Ash depth filters were developed which can simultaneously remove nitrogen, phosphorus and bacteria from human waste streams while simultaneously maintaining a flow rate which is acceptable for domestic use processing urine from one individual for 1 month if the filter bed has a volume of approximately 3 l. Nitrogen and phosphorus depletion is achieved by the formation of Struvite Enriched Ash, which can subsequently be used as a slow-release garden fertilizer. Depth filtration and sanitation by high pH removed all detectable bacteria from this home-based system.

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