This study estimates the social and economic impact of achieving full sanitation in Odisha State, the first time such a study has been conducted at a sub-national (entire State) level in India. The economic costs and associated social benefits to society via the elimination of open defecation by 2025 are estimated and compared to progress at the current pace. The findings show that net benefits of sanitation conservatively amount to at least 1.6% State GDP (range 0.4 to 2.7% under varying growth and discount rates). The benefit-cost ratio is estimated at 5.7 (range 3.1 to 7.7). These results provide strong evidence to planners and decision-makers that sanitation gives significant returns, both social and economic, on investment and gives ample evidence for the acceleration of the elimination of open defecation.

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