A simple and low-cost test to measure the physical strength of faecal sludge simulants is presented and used in the development of improved desludging pumps in Kampala, Uganda. The technical performance of two variants of the Gulper manual pump have for the first time been quantitatively assessed under controlled conditions. The time taken to prime and the average flow rate in the following 30 seconds are reported for both pumps on two different strengths of faecal sludge, demonstrating a distinct improvement in the redesigned Gulper II. This pump is now undergoing field trials across East Africa with a view to it being marketed and sold to pit-emptying entrepreneurs by Sanitation Solutions Group.

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