To avoid odor in sanitation systems, urine is usually diluted with water (flushed), which leads to high water consumption. The smell may remain in sanitation systems if the systems are not well managed, or if the urine is flushed with insufficient amounts of water. In this study, using the standard threshold odor number (TON) measurement as an indicator of urine odor, the effects of the pH and temperature of the diluting water regarding the amount of water:urine dilution ratio were studied. The effects of temperature and pH of the diluting water on TON when the dilution ratio was constant were investigated. Results show that lowering the pH and temperature of the diluting water can reduce the minimum dilution ratio needed to achieve TON = 0. At constant dilution ratio, reducing pH seemed to be more efficient, sustainable, and economical in comparison to adjusting the temperature of the diluting water. It was found that, based on the specific pH and temperature of the diluting water, there is a minimum dilution ratio required to avoid urine odor. Therefore, in sanitation systems, the amount of flushing should be adjusted based on the characteristics of the flushing water as well as on the amount of urination.

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