Due to the complexity of some managerial problems, especially those related to sanitation, academic studies have shown the need to use appropriate methods to assist in this type of decision. Within this context, this research aimed to provide a review of the literature from the field of decision sciences to the field of water resource management. It was identified in this study that the use of multi-criteria methods, including Analytical Hierarchy Process, Measuring Attractiveness by a Categorical based Evaluation Technique, Multiattribute Utility Theory, Elimination et Choice Traduisant la Realité, Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations, Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution, and game theory, including cooperative and non-cooperative bargaining games, are useful for creation and comparison of scenarios, reducing the time needed to reach a solution for complex problems involving a large number of criteria and agents. It also demonstrated the benefits of creating greater transparency in the decision-making process, thus increasing the potential for a solution acceptable to all the parties involved. Although still little explored, discussions of sanitation problems can and should be enhanced with the use of techniques and methods of decision sciences, and multi-criteria and game theory techniques are particularly suitable for this task.

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