In Peru, anemia affects around 30% of children under the age of four, making it one of the major public health problems of the country. The literature suggests that water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions may reduce anemia prevalence; however, empirical evidence of this association remains scarce for the Peruvian context. The objective of this study was to analyze the association between WASH conditions and office visits due to anemia (OVA), at the regional level during the years 2010–2018. Using generalized estimating equation models (GEE), we find that the prevalence of OVA increases by 0.24/1,000 per one percentage point (PP) increase in the proportion of households with access to safe drinking water and decreases by 0.22/1,000 per one PP increase in the proportion of households with basic sanitation. Our results suggest that policymakers should not only ensure a better coverage of drinking water source but also ensure adequate quality.

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