Water service providers must understand the needs and consumption patterns of their customers in order to make informed decisions on new investments. The Mandalay City Development Committee is undertaking an expansion of its water supply and sewerage infrastructure with a goal of reaching every citizen. The service provider needs to revise tariffs to cover higher provision costs. To this end, a survey conducted in 2019 in Mandalay City, Myanmar revealed that 80% of users relied on more than one water source. The selection of water source depended on intended use, quality, availability, and reliability more than it did on price. Users are heavily reliant on groundwater, which is also increasingly scarce and contaminated. The findings shed light on the challenges of meeting operational costs through tariffs when municipal supplies are not the sole source of water, water quality is poor, and non-revenue water is high.

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