Water must meet the drinking water standards in order not to cause disease. In urban slums the infrastructure (water supply, sewage) is more precarious, leaving the population susceptible to health problems. The objective was to analyze drinking water consumed by the population in Manguinhos slums, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, based on the standards established in the Brazilian Regulation, and based on socioenvironmental indicators related to the health of the slums population. Bacteriological and physicochemical parameters were analyzed according to Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, compared with socioenvironmental data through spatial statistics. The results revealed that water, for the most part, exceeded the limits of drinking water quality standards, which places the population's health at risk and reinforces the urgency of public policies. Spatial and drinking water analysis indicated that the regions with the highest population density were the regions with the highest socioenvironmental vulnerability. These areas are priorities for government action to reduce health inequities, such as education, access to health services and access to sewer and water treatment.