Important milestones in reducing child mortality rates have been achieved internationally and in Africa. With 76 deaths per 1,000 live births, sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) continues to have the world's highest under-five mortality (U5M) rate. In SSA, one child in every 13 dies from preventable causes before reaching their fifth birthday. This study sought to determine the impact of demographic, socio-economic, and environmental determinants on child health in Namibia, using the Namibian demographic and health surveys (NDHS) from 2006 and 2013. A logistic regression model was used to determine the association between improved sanitary facilities and water sources and U5M in Namibia. Improved access to sanitation facilities in Namibia is associated with less U5M rate, according to the 2013 survey. No significant association was observed between improved access to safe water and child's death. In 2013, the greater the mother's level of education, the lower the chance of child death. Finally, the findings demonstrate that mothers with HIV-positive are more likely to experience under-five death. Hence, the Namibian government should increase sanitation facilities and promote maternal healthcare services for less fortunate households to lower the U5M rate.

  • Eighty-seven percent (87%) households have access to safe water supply in Namibia.

  • Children from the Zambezi region had ≥50% chance of under-five mortality (U5M) compared with children from the Otjozondjupa and Khomas regions (p<0.05).

  • Mothers from the cities had 32% lower chance of experiencing U5M than mothers from villages.

  • HIV-positive mothers had a 2.3 times higher chance of experiencing U5M than the HIV-negative mothers.

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