Murchison Bay in Lake Victoria is the main water source for Kampala City (Uganda) but is also the recipient for the wastewater discharged from the city. The objective of this paper is to trace the main landuse-based pollution sources within Kampala City borders and around Murchison Bay as a means to develop methods and systems to protect and preserve the aquatic environment and, from the lessons learned, to highlight what is considered to be an appropriate and sustainable approach for Uganda. This paper shows that Uganda needs to set realistic local standards, offer affordable services, set time frameworks, streamline politics, nurture and develop institutions, divide institutional responsibilities, educate her people and learn from the success stories to reverse the negative impacts on the water quality in Murchison Bay.

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