The rapid urbanization and industrialization of China in recent years has presented serious challenges for the country in guaranteeing the preservation of agricultural water resources. This study selected four areas in China, each with different water resource and social development conditions. The relationship between the processes of urbanization and industrialization and recent agricultural water use was analyzed using rates of urbanization and the proportion of the added values from secondary and tertiary industries to China's gross domestic product. The analysis showed that overall agricultural water use in China decreases as the processes of urbanization and industrialization proceed. Agricultural water use has decreased in the Huang-Huai-Hai and northwest regions because both have experienced water resource shortages. The impact of industrialization and urbanization is minor in the northeast and southern regions as these areas have abundant water resources; however, the proportion of agricultural water use to total water use has decreased. These results reflect the impact that urbanization and industrialization have on agricultural water use, particularly in terms of how these processes change population structure, industry structure, and comparative benefit. This study advocates for a synergistic development of industrialization, urbanization, and agricultural modernization, and the guarantee of grain safety in China.

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