Twenty-one provinces in China have the problem of groundwater over-exploitation, and Hebei is the province with the longest-lasting and most severe groundwater over-exploitation problems. In 2014, the Chinese government initiated a pilot project of groundwater over-exploitation control in Hebei Province. Comprehensive measures have been adopted, including replacement of groundwater supply with surface water, development of a water-saving agricultural irrigation system, adjustment of agricultural planting mode, and improvement of water use right and water pricing systems. Pilot projects of groundwater over-exploitation treatment in Hebei Province can provide a good reference for other arid and semi-arid regions to implement and strengthen groundwater management strategies.

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