This paper shows how water poverty mapping using census data and the Water Poverty Index can be used to identify effectively the most water-poor households in a region for the targeting of water supply development policies and projects. The main findings come from a case study conducted in the Estcourt municipal district in South Africa where simple water poverty maps were developed using readily available data sources at three different scales: enumerator area, place names and sub-catchment. The efficiency of targeting the most water-poor households using the different scales of water poverty maps were measured by comparing both the inclusion and exclusion rates of targeting and comparing them with other similar targeting studies. The distribution of water poverty within a community was also compared with the results of a detailed household questionnaire conducted as part of the broader development of the water poverty index (WPI). The main conclusion from the study is that water poverty mapping is a strong visual extension of the WPI that has great potential for providing a practical way for water management authorities and decision makers to identify and target the most water poor households and monitoring the impacts and tangible benefits of water supply development policies.

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