River management has frequently been associated with water supply and resource management, whereas coastal zone management has been more concerned with marine resource management and physical planning. Recognizing the close connection between the river and its catchment area has led to a more integrated approach to river basin management, taking into account water quality along with quantity. Similarly, recognition of the importance of integrated management of the coastal zone as a move towards achieving sustainable development, has led to integrated coastal zone management, with expansion of the domain in both landward and seaward directions. Considering the intrinsic link through physical and ecological structure as well as related physical and biological processes, any modification in a river basin will ultimately affect the coastal zone. Land-based activities, rivers, estuaries, coastal zones and marine environments are all inherently interlinked. As such, an integrated approach to the concomitant management of coastal zones and river basins is crucial. This paper provides an overview of various concepts, approaches and strategies to integrated coastal zone and river basin management. It points out lessons that could be learned from previous and ongoing projects. The paper provides a starting point for investigating how changes in land use and management of river basins might have an impact on the quality of river water and the corresponding coastal zone through scrutinization of management tools and implementation instruments. The paper identifies a requirement further to develop tools which will assist in evaluating current and future environmental conditions at a river/estuary/sea interface within a rigorous framework.

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