Water balance approaches have been widely used to stimulate and forecast the average runoff and river discharge in small- and medium-sized basins. The analysis of water balance for Feesh Khabour River and Dohuk Dam catchment areas needs to be verified. This study used 24 alternative scenarios for assessing the robustness of adaptation decisions to water management practices. The discharge of Feesh Khabour River recorded at Zakho station, with a maximum flow rate of higher than 19.6 m cm d−1 and a minimum flow rate of 0.3 m cm d−1, helps ensure that interbasin water transfer remains one of the most attractive alternatives for increasing the amount of water available in the Dohuk Dam for agricultural, domestic and tourism uses.

Introduction

As reported during the International Conference on World Water Resources at the beginning of the twenty-first century, the most serious environmental problems of the twenty-first century are global warming, toxic waste, water and air pollution, acid rain and shrinking energy supplies, having the potential to alter the course of life on this planet (El-Ashry, 1994; Shiklomanov, 2003). But aside from these global problems, the water quantity and quality problems are very much inter-related and should be studied within an integrated management framework according to the hydrological boundary at different implementation levels (Fulazzaky & Gany, 2009; Fulazzaky, 2014). Water is the most important chemical of life for all living organisms (including humans) on earth. As the human population grows, the demand for water resources will also grow. Population growth aside, the current supply of water is being degraded by pollution, overdrawing and climate change (Shiklomanov, 2003; Jury & Vaux, 2005). It is well recognised that water scarcity involves water stress, water deficit, water shortage and water crisis. Currently, the world is thus facing a freshwater crisis (Karamouz & Nazif, 2008), and severe water shortages have led to a growing number of conflicts among the users in agricultural, industrial and domestic sectors (Faeth & Weinthal, 2012).

Due to the large variations in hydrological cycle, dams are required to be constructed to store water during the periods of surplus availability and conserve it for utilisation during the lean periods when the water availability is scarce (Misra et al., 2007). The World Commission on Dams (WCD) endorsed this point of view, specifically in relation to the benefits of building a dam (such as water storage, hydroelectricity, flood mitigation, etc.). In its final report, the WCD emphasised the need for the decision-making process on dams to be linked with the larger questions pertaining to the sustainability of water and energy development (WCD, 2000). Assessing the potential benefits of dam operation begins by characterising the dam's effects on the river flow regime and formulating the hypotheses about the ecological and social benefits which might be restored by releasing water from the dam in a manner that more closely resembles the natural flow patterns. Integrated water management practices might consider all competing demands for water and seek to allocate water on an equitable basis to satisfy all uses and demands. Therefore, a water balance analysis is required to demonstrate that the hydrological regimes and hydroperiods will be maintained in the development of scenarios to cope with future challenges of water management (Wurbs, 1987). Even though water balance models have been developed for many locations at various time scales (e.g. hourly, daily, monthly and yearly) and for varying degrees of the complexity of water management issues (Quinn & Guerra, 1986; Ramos et al., 2009), the water balance concept used to help manage the water resources of Dohuk Dam, located in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, for agricultural, domestic and tourism purposes needs to be verified.

The Dohuk Dam is an earth-fill embankment dam on Dohuk River just 2 km north of the Dohuk city in the Dohuk Governorate of the Kurdistan Region, Iraq. The dam was completed in 1988 with the primary purpose of providing water for irrigation of about 4,600 hectares of agricultural area in Dohuk province; however, today the need is growing for additional supplies of water for domestic (including industrial use) and tourism purposes. The dam is 60 m high and can hold 52 million cubic metres (mcm) of water. At normal operation level, the Dohuk Dam has a surface area of about 46 km2; the main characteristics of the dam are depicted in Table 1. The dam has been considered since 1993 as one of the principal water sources for domestic water supply to the people of Dohuk city (Shareef & Muhamad, 2008; Ahmed & Kheder, 2009). The amount of water available in some areas around the nearby city of Dohuk has been already limited; however, the demand for water will continue to rise as the population grows. Primary mechanisms by which water leaves Dohuk Dam include evaporation, which can be quite high in the region – upwards of 39 mm month−1 in February to 283 mm month−1 in July with an average monthly evaporation of 148.2 mm. The semi-arid climate of Iraq includes the Dohuk province, with an average yearly rainfall of 48.8 mm recorded at Dohuk city rain gauge station. Protection of aquatic environment and intrinsic value of Dohuk Dam for touristic purposes is essential to get a better understanding of the stored water allocation strategy. Challenges to improve the water resources management of Dohuk Dam must begin with the complexity of the water balance analysis, including hydrological and environmental issues of interbasin water transfer from the Feesh Khabour River to Dohuk Dam.

Table 1.

Main characteristics of Dohuk Dam.

Basic term of dam characteristics Unit Value 
Full supply level masl 615.75 
Wall height masl 619.73 
Full storage capacity mcm 52 
Surface area at full supply msm 2.560 
Crest length 740 
Reservoir catchment area km2 135 
Spillway capacity m3 s−1 81 
Life storage mcm 47.51 
Dead storage mcm 4.39 
Basic term of dam characteristics Unit Value 
Full supply level masl 615.75 
Wall height masl 619.73 
Full storage capacity mcm 52 
Surface area at full supply msm 2.560 
Crest length 740 
Reservoir catchment area km2 135 
Spillway capacity m3 s−1 81 
Life storage mcm 47.51 
Dead storage mcm 4.39 

Note: masl is metres above sea level; msm is million square metres; and mcm is million cubic metres.

The objectives of this study are as follows: (1) to present a compilation of the long-term hydrological datasets for a period of 26 years (1987–2012) based on the calibration of the models using a 7-year period (2001–2007) of the overlapping rainfall data and a 3-year period (1987–1989) of the river discharge obtained from two different sources of direct measurement and report data calculation, (2) to estimate the runoff inflow into Dohuk Dam and to review the water balance approach that satisfies the demands of water for human uses and avoids reducing water levels with respect to agricultural, domestic and tourism purposes, and (3) to define the amounts of the possible options for interbasin water transfer from the Feesh Khabour River discharge to Dohuk Dam and to analyse the future water management practices forecasting using 24 alternative scenarios.

Methodology

Compilation of the long time series of hydrological data

The procedure used to analyse water balance for managing a dam will vary depending on typical design of dam, river catchment area, local climate and rainfall intensity. Figure 1 shows the flowchart of water balance analysis, for Dohuk Dam and its catchment area and for Feesh Khabour River at Zakho gauging station and its catchment areas, for forecasting the future water management practices. The Dohuk Dam could be filled with water mainly from rainfall because two rivers, fed by around a dozen springs, have a small stream flowing into the dam. During dry periods, evaporation can cause a significant loss of the Dohuk Dam's water. The spatial and temporal patterns of annual rainfall variability do show the amount of rainfalls based on the rainfall data monitored from the single rain gauge installed for covering the Dohuk Dam catchment area. The water balance analysis, for which the short-period rainfall data were available for only 12 years (2001–2012) collected from the Directorate General of Irrigation and Dam (DGID), should be considered to be at risk of bias, particularly when a standard hydrological data processing and analysis package for managing water in a reservoir is used which ideally requires long-term data collection over more than 25 years (Inomata & Fukami, 2008; Fulazzaky & Akil, 2009). An additional source of rainfall data for a period of 22 years (1986–2007) published by the Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration towards the Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE's Water Resources) must be considered for the interpretation of hydrologic trends from a water balance prospective (Istanbulluoglu et al., 2012; Hossain et al., 2015). Within this study, data analysis was carried out using the overlapping data of a 7-year period (2001–2007) for rainfall on the catchment areas of Dohuk Dam and Feesh Khabour River and a 3-year period (1987–1989) for the Feesh Khabour River discharge collected from DGID and APHRODITE's Water Resources Report 2007 (AWR-2007) into a model-based calibration to develop a long time series of 26-years' (1987–2012) hydrological data. Time series analysis of hydrological data should be more than 25 years for the derived distribution to be acceptable (Jain et al., 2007). This study used a 26-year period of hydrological data, in order to ensure achieving the benefits of measured and calibrated forecast data for reasonably accurate simulation of the hydrological variables required, to perform the analysis of water balance for the catchment areas of Feesh Khabour River and Dohuk Dam. The selection of hydrological data for a period of 26 years follows a best practice approach for avoiding potential breach or loss of confidential and proprietary information.
Fig. 1.

Flowchart of Dohuk Dam water balance analysis for future water management practices; it is important to note that Aph-point means the point of the Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration towards the Evaluation of Water Resources.

Fig. 1.

Flowchart of Dohuk Dam water balance analysis for future water management practices; it is important to note that Aph-point means the point of the Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration towards the Evaluation of Water Resources.

Estimation of rainfall for Dohuk Dam catchment area

Over the course of this study, the rainfall calculations taken at Aph-point Delga were used as the most appropriate source of information for the development of synthetic rainfall distribution for Dohuk Dam catchment area. Because of the missing data, which has been indicated over a period of 14 years (1987–2000), the rain gauge-calibrated AWR calculations were used to represent the missing rainfall data of Dohuk Dam rain gauge station based on the match-ups between the rainfall data calculated for Aph-point Delga and those collected for Dohuk Dam station.

Estimation of rainfall for Feesh Khabour River catchment area

The Feesh Khabour River catchment basin drains a watershed area of 6,143 km2 and has a vital need for the rainfall estimates because the Dohuk Dam catchment area was extremely vulnerable to excesses and deficits of rain over the long period of 26 years (1987–2012). Therefore, assessment of the water balance and cumulative impacts by an interbasin water transfer must be performed. Thiessen polygons can be used to create the areas which influence the discharge of Feesh Khabour River at Zakho gauging station. The Thiessen polygons analysis used seven rain gauge stations, i.e. Dohuk Dam, Zakho, Batifa, Kani Mase, Duski, Bamarni and Sarsink, as shown in Figure 2. In this method, the watershed was divided into the polygons with a rain gauge in the middle of each polygon assumed to be representative for rainfall on the area of land included in its polygon. These polygons were used for weighting the ratio of average monthly rainfall at each station. The rainfall recorded at a station was estimated as a function of the normal monthly rainfall of the station under question and those of the neighbouring stations for the period of missing data (1987–2000) at the station under question. The catchment contributing areas of Dohuk Dam, Zakho, Batifa, Kani Mase, Duski, Bamarni and Sarsink are as high as 86.23 km2 (2.46%), 893.64 km2 (25.53%), 1,613.69 km2 (46.11%), 60.56 km2 (1.73%), 346.47 km2 (9.90%), 410.55 km2 (11.73%) and 88.87 km2 (2.54%), respectively, approximately 50% of the Feesh Khabour River catchment area located upstream of Zakho gauging station. By simulating, the rainfall history goes back until 1987 and thus creates a complete dataset without missing data for the years from 1987 to 2000. The equations used to model the water distribution system seek to explain the spatial allocation of actual water demands (Kanakoudis & Gonelas, 2015).
Fig. 2.

Catchment areas of Dohuk Dam and Feesh Khabour River.

Fig. 2.

Catchment areas of Dohuk Dam and Feesh Khabour River.

Estimation of discharges for Feesh Khabour River at Zakho gauging station

The Feesh Khabour River has a catchment area of 6,143 km2, of which 57% is located in Turkey and 43% in Iraq (United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) & German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), 2013). The ecological integrity of riverine ecosystems is dependent upon the natural flow regime of a river drainage system (Sanford et al., 2007; Konar et al., 2013). The Feesh Khabour River catchment basin is a case study in the complexity of managing riparian resources in which extensive irrigation schemes have been developed that have transformed land use patterns and the natural flow regime of the river. The catchment areas of Feesh Khabour River above the Zakho gauging station are determined by the surface area of all lands which drains toward the river from above that point. River discharge at Zakho gauging station depends on rainfall on the catchment areas and inflow or outflow of groundwater to or from the areas, stream modifications such as dams and irrigation diversions, snow and season, as well as evaporation in any temperature and evapotranspiration from the area's land and through plants. All this information must be used in a multiple regression analysis to build a regression equation of the form: 
formula
1
where Q is Feesh Khabour River discharge (m3 s−1), P is average monthly precipitation for the catchment areas of Feesh Khabour River (mm), S is season along the year with S = 1 for summer, S = 2 for autumn, S = 3 for winter and S = 4 for spring (dimensionless), N is snow with N = 0 for no snow, N = 1 for snowfall and N = 2 for snowmelt (dimensionless), T is temperature (°C), IW is water supply for irrigation (m3 s−1), and d = −0.189 m2 s−1, e = 23.583 m3 s−1, f = 36.849 m3 s−1, g = 1.272 m3 s−1 °C−1, h = −14.916 and i = −40.004 m3 s−1 are all multiple regression coefficients.

Nonparametric regression is a form of regression analysis (Feungpean et al., 2015); it does not take a predetermined form but is constructed according to the information derived from the data. Therefore, it is acceptable for the equation to encompass negative values. A negative value of the coefficient d in Equation (1) does mean the regression model would be accepted as a statistical technique for studying the nonparametric relationship, because if the precipitation falls as snow, the Feesh Khabour River will discharge less water than it currently does.

Estimation of water balance for Dohuk Dam

In general, balancing reservoirs are required to balance supply with demand. A water balance analysis can be used to help manage water supply and predict where there may be water shortages. In analysing the water balance for the Dohuk Dam system, evaporation plays a crucial role particularly because the dam system is of a small size and located in a semi-arid region (Sivapragasam et al., 2009; Luo et al., 2014). Water balance basically looks at the balance between inputs and outputs, and thus the water balance equation is the basic formula to quantitatively study hydrology and water resources (Vörösmarty et al., 1998; Li & Wang, 2012). This study used a water balance equation to calculate the variability of inflow available for Dohuk Dam, such that: Inflow to the dam – Outflow from the dam = Rise in the water surface of the dam, which is an increase in the storage of the dam in a time interval (Dawidek & Ferencz, 2014).

Analysis of the interbasin water transfer

In the case of this study, the seasonal patterns of river discharge for Feesh Khabour River need to be reviewed to make it more appealing to interbasin water transfer, according to the amount of annual water resources available. As the causality of Feesh Khabour catchment basin characteristics according to hydromorphological reference conditions (Galia & Hradecký, 2014) was hardly considered in a deductive approach of the interbasin water transfer (de Andrade et al., 2011), an integrated analysis of the potential water availability for the rationalisation of water transfer properties from Feesh Khabour River to Dohuk Dam (see Figure 2) can be developed on the basis of 24 different alternative scenarios. The emphasis of interbasin water transfer was based on the assumption that the hydrological data depended upon for calibration are reliable. A causally justified water available prognosis for the Feesh Khabour drainage basin properties can be achieved if the underlying rainfall data of the rain gauge stations monitored by DGID and those calculated by AWR-2007 could represent the dataset of valid observations for estimating surface water flows.

Scenarios development

The analysis of water balance was performed to understand the state of Dohuk Dam system, which resulted in a correlated reservoir water level with the rainfall patterns, indicating that the watersheds are highly responsive to rainfall trends (Luna & Poteau, 2011). For tourism purposes, the Dohuk Dam water level should be close to full pool at a level of higher than 614 metres above sea level (masl); therefore, interbasin water transfer is required for increasing the water level of the dam. Once the transfer of water from Feesh Khabour River can be realised, the water users can withdraw a specific amount of the water from Dohuk Dam for their specific purpose by maintaining the integrity of the ideal water levels in the range from 614 to 615.75 masl. Meanwhile in the future, an aggregate economic-hydrologic model must be developed to allow the analysis of water allocation and future water management strategies ability to cope with the implications of 24 alternative scenarios. Each alternative scenario represents what could happen if a substantial amount of the water withdrawal is required for domestic water supply and irrigation.

The analysis of the possible scenarios will focus on four strategies, such that: (1) the existing agricultural land of 78.75 hectares, that requires a level of 40 cm water, needs to be irrigated during a period of 150 days per year. The prediction of agricultural land demand of the scenarios can then increase approximately 10 times in the next decade, depending on the estimate of the irrigated lands available for agricultural expansion in Dohuk Governorate for which water needed to supply the irrigation scheme is taken from Dohuk Dam (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), 2004). The Dohuk Dam should be operated without having to supply irrigation water for the agricultural lands for Scenarios 1–12 and having to supply water at a rate of 50,000 m3 d−1 to the agricultural lands for Scenarios 13–24, because the irrigation water use efficiency is generally regarded as low, approximately 55% of water losses could be due to leaks (Xin et al., 2015), wastage, illegal connections and evaporation. (2) The estimate of household water use, that ranges from 100,000 to 300,000 people and takes a great deal of knowledge and coordination among the multiple stakeholders, should provide access to safe and adequate water supply to properly manage domestic water supply from the Dohuk Dam. Such an estimate has considered that the Dohuk city's population has continued to increase from 120,000 to 170,000 to 262,640 and to 300,000 people for the years from 1984 to 1998 to 2007 and to 2011, respectively (Mohammed, 2013). The overall average demand rate of household water in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq is assumed as 280 L d−1 cap−1, based on the scenario given by the Iraqi Ministry of Municipalities and Public Works, with expected population in Iraq of more than 34 million in 2015, that domestic water supply needed could be in the range of 200–350 L d−1 cap−1 (Al-Ansari et al., 2014). Scenario setting for Scenarios 7–12 and Scenarios 19–24 can only work if it is introduced into an adequate water supply to satisfy the projected future water needs for 300,000 people; however, to clarify, the regulations in Scenarios 1–6 and Scenarios 13–18 would not include the strategy to allocate water supplies for the purpose of domestic water. (3) The seasonal fluctuations of soil properties, that can affect the rate of water infiltration into the soils (Fouli et al., 2013; Fulazzaky et al., 2014), will take into account all relevant scenarios, because soil texture and structure greatly influence water infiltration, permeability and water-holding capacity (Hillel, 2012; Fulazzaky et al., 2013). For scenario setting, it might be considered that to incorporate groundwater and surface water interactions into management decisions (Condon & Maxwell, 2013) the infiltration rate of 0.00 mm d−1 is suitable for the infiltration defined by a line either side of which groundwater moves in opposite directions, the infiltration rate of 0.25 mm d−1 is suitable for clay soil, and the infiltration rate of 0.50 mm d−1 is suitable for the infiltration of the worst case conditions. Variation of the infiltration rate at different sites in Dohuk Dam ponded area could be in the range of 0.00–0.50 mm d−1 (Noori & Ismaeel, 2011). The use of the typical infiltration rate could be useful for each alternative scenario. (4) The solution to the Dohuk Dam water deficit problems does convey water from the neighbouring catchment area of Feesh Khabour River to Dohuk Dam. A 10,000 m3 d−1 rate of interbasin water transfer can be realised from the discharge of Feesh Khabour River, at an intake point near the Zakho gauging station, to Dohuk Dam (see Figure 2) and can be set to alternate the water transfers between not transferring for odd and transferring for even numbers of scenarios.

Results and discussion

Completion of the long-term hydrological based dataset

A lack of rainfall data for a period of 14 years (1987–2000), due to the extent of civil war in Iraq, received the attention of this study in enacting the water-related data calculated by AWR-2007. The results of multiple regression analysis, that best fit the data, could be obtained by using the Aph-point Kani Mase covering the gauge stations of Zakho, Batifa and Duski to represent the average monthly rainfall data in the catchment areas of Feesh Khabour River, and Aph-point Delga covering the gauge station of Dohuk Dam to represent the Dohuk Dam catchment area, which have the highest values for correlation (R2 > 0.52). The rainfall estimates of the catchment areas of both Dohuk Dam and Feesh Khabour River, from the regression analysis for a period of 14 years (1987–2000), were obtained by modelling the overlapping data of a 7-year collection period (2001–2007), as shown in Table 2. The dedicated model calibration used here takes advantage of the new data that can extend the dataset to cover 26 years (1987–2012) of the rainfall data. Modelling river discharge rates of the Feesh Khabour River can explore a long period of 27 years (1986–2012) based on the rainfall estimates, combined with the discharge data recorded by DGID for a period of 4 years (1986–1989). The regression analysis was used for the prediction and forecasting of discharges of the Feesh Khabour River, where its use has substantial overlap between the discharges recorded by DGID and the rainfall estimated using a regression model of plotting the rainfall recorded by DGID versus those calculated by AWR-2007 for a period of 3 years (1987–1999). Table 2 shows a long-term hydrological based dataset of the Feesh Khabour River discharge for a period of 26 years (1986–2012) to be used for water balance analysis in order to maintain the Dohuk Dam water levels for agricultural, domestic and tourism purposes.

Table 2.

Development of the long time series of 26-year hydrological data.

Year Dohuk Dam catchment area
 
Feesh Khabour River catchment area
 
ET P
 
I O T P
 
Q
 
DGID DGID AWR Sim DGID DGID Sat DGID AWR Sim DGID Reg Sid 
1986 
1987 
1988 
1989 
1990 
1991 
1992 
1993 
1994 
1995 
1996 
1997 
1998 
1999 
2000 
2001 
2002 
2003 
2004 
2005 
2006 
2007 
2008 
2009 
2010 
2011 
2012 
Year Dohuk Dam catchment area
 
Feesh Khabour River catchment area
 
ET P
 
I O T P
 
Q
 
DGID DGID AWR Sim DGID DGID Sat DGID AWR Sim DGID Reg Sid 
1986 
1987 
1988 
1989 
1990 
1991 
1992 
1993 
1994 
1995 
1996 
1997 
1998 
1999 
2000 
2001 
2002 
2003 
2004 
2005 
2006 
2007 
2008 
2009 
2010 
2011 
2012 

Note:ET is evapotranspiration (mm month−1), P is rainfall intensity (mm month−1), I is inflow to Dohuk Dam (mcm month−1), O is outflow from Dohuk Dam (mcm month−1), T is temperature (oC), Q is discharge of Feesh Khabour River (m3 month−1), DGID is Directorate General of Irrigation and Dam, AWR is APHRODITE's Water Resources 2007, Sim is rainfall simulation, Sid is discharge simulation, Sat is temperature collected from the internet (www.mywether2.com), Reg is discharge obtained from a regression analysis on the basis of rainfall data, 0 is data missing, 1 is data collected, and 2 is data simulated.

Application of the long-term hydrological data for water balance analysis

A plot of the rainfall data recorded from the Dohuk Dam station versus those derived from the Aph-point Delga calculations gives a linear expression of: P1 = 1.284 P2 with R2 = 0.7125 where P1 is the rainfall monitored by DGID at the Dohuk Dam rain gauge station (in mm month−1) and P2 is the rainfall data calculated by AWR-2007 at the Aph-point Delga (in mm month−1). The results (Figure 3) show the seasonal pattern of monthly rainfall modelling for Dohuk Dam station from making long-term forecasts of 26 years (1987–2012); thus the inter-annual rainfall variability drives the Dohuk Dam inflow variability. As a whole, the intensity of rainfall shows a decreasing trend from year to year and may result in a decreasing trend of water volume in the reservoir, in which should be potentially sufficient water available for domestic water supply, irrigation and tourism purposes.
Fig. 3.

Seasonal patterns of average monthly inflow into Dohuk Dam and average monthly rainfall on the catchment area of Dohuk Dam.

Fig. 3.

Seasonal patterns of average monthly inflow into Dohuk Dam and average monthly rainfall on the catchment area of Dohuk Dam.

Fundamentally, the purpose of Dohuk Dam is to create a reservoir – an area in which to temporarily store water and hence to regulate the flow of water; therefore, the size of this dam ponded area is governed by the volume of water that must be stored, which in turn is affected by the variability of the inflow available. Figure 3 shows the seasonal pattern of runoff inflow into Dohuk Dam for a period of 26 years (1987–2012). Inflow into the dam in December 1991, recorded at a rate of 9.8 mcm month−1, was amongst the highest inflows recorded though almost similar to that recorded in December 2005 (9.6 mcm month−1), which had been the highest recorded over the last 9 years (2004–2012). The lowest inflow on the record, i.e. the maximum annual streams inflow available for the reservoir, was recorded at a rate of 3.4 mcm month−1 in December 2007, approximately 34.69% of the maximum inflow recorded in December 1991. In terms of the seasonal pattern of runoff inflow into Dohuk Dam during the last 26 years (1987–2012), the figure shows an increasing trend of the inflow available for a 7-year period from 1990 to 1996. Similarly, the tendency for a dry period to get drier can be seen in drier periods from the reservoir inflow pattern; however, the figure shows that droughts of long duration have occurred twice in the Dohuk province of Iraq, i.e. a 3-year period of 1998–2000 and a 2-year period of 2008–2009. Severe and extreme droughts were less common except for severe drought in the dry season, which occurred in 2008 and 2009. The dry season is a yearly period of high potential evaporation and low rainfall and hence water level tends to decrease and flow rates in streams and rivers slow (Nazemi & Wheater, 2014), severely constrained by decreasing water storage and growing competition for water supply. Such impacts, in conjunction with climate change impacts on the Dohuk Dam inflow pattern, could affect the future operations and water delivery reliability. Therefore, the important economic concepts that need future research attention for a scheme of integrated economic-hydrologic water management include transaction costs, agricultural productivity effects of water allocation mechanisms, inter-sectoral water allocations, environmental impacts of water allocations and property rights in water for different allocation mechanisms.

The Dohuk Dam, constructed in 1987 with the primary purpose of providing water for irrigation, has been reoriented toward the principal water sources for domestic water supply since 1993 (Shareef & Muhamad, 2008; Ahmed & Kheder, 2009). Because people live mostly in the Dohuk city nearby, the water levels of the dam can be affected by water withdrawals for human needs. Estimates of storage and withdrawal effects on the aquatic biota could be used in the predictive landscape models to support the adaptive water supply planning framework and create an ideal location for a tourism destination (Freeman et al., 2013). It is recognised that the withdrawal of water is one of the outflows released from Dohuk Dam. The pattern of water withdrawal over the past 26 years (1987–2012) shows the variability of the annual water uses (see Figure 4(a)). The maximum surface water withdrawal from the dam occurred in December 1993, when water for human uses was supplied at a rate of 35.3 mcm y−1, and the minimum withdrawals of water occurred in December 2003 and in December 2010, when water for human use was supplied at the rates of 10.8 and 10.6 mcm y−1, respectively.
Fig. 4.

Patterns of (a) water withdrawal from Dohuk Dam and (b) water levels with (1) the fluctuations of water level for a period of 26 years (1987–2012), (2) the minimum threshold limit of 614 masl for touristic water level and (3) the minimum threshold limit of 615.75 masl for spillway overflow.

Fig. 4.

Patterns of (a) water withdrawal from Dohuk Dam and (b) water levels with (1) the fluctuations of water level for a period of 26 years (1987–2012), (2) the minimum threshold limit of 614 masl for touristic water level and (3) the minimum threshold limit of 615.75 masl for spillway overflow.

The information about the volume of water lost through evaporation, to illustrate its significance to net water supply per year in comparison to the annual outflow from Dohuk Dam, needs to be verified. The use of pan evaporation data could be useful for estimating the evaporation of the stored water, but transpiration and evaporation of the intercepted rain on aquatic vegetation are still difficult to estimate and would most likely be negligible. This is because the Dohuk Dam, being located in a semi-arid environment (Zhao et al., 2015), has a limited aquatic vegetation life and is a small man-made lake fed by springs from the surrounding rocky hills and mountains. The mountains of Garmawa and Bajlur have a moderate plant cover of dry grasses, with a high number of herbs, shrubs and trees such as Vitis sp., Pyrus communis, Quercus sp., Ficus sp., Prunus amygdalus, and Orobanche sp. (Ararat et al., 2008). The impoundment has almost a fan-like shape with an elongated part to the northwest of the dam, where forest vegetation and orchards have been permanently under water, and west and east shores of the impoundment are arable lands. Even though the volume of water lost through evapotranspiration would be quite significant, the measurement of water loss from the dam based on the evaporation estimates does not accurately represent actual losses. However, the measurements and observations could confirm the significance of evaporation and help explain the influence of complex interactions among the hydro-meteorological factors that affect the water levels. In this study, evapotranspiration with a rate of 61.1 mcm y−1 of the stored water, corresponding to approximately 10.44% of the annual outflow, was estimated for the Dohuk Dam only based on the pan evaporation data.

The Dohuk Dam is one of the most important aggregated dams in Iraq and its overflow spillway, at 615.75 masl, was constructed as the part of a buttress dam. Spillways release floods so that the water does not overtop and damage or even destroy the dam (Oñate & Owen, 2011). During the periods of high runoff in the years of 1994 and 1995, the water stored in Dohuk Dam typically increased and overflow through the spillway occurred. Figure 4(b) shows the water level fluctuations, which are often linked to the seasonal climatic trends and are a natural phenomenon, combined with the impact of water withdrawal, which have occurred in the Dohuk Dam catchment area over a period of 26 years, from 1987 to 2012. Water overflow through the Dohuk Dam spillway was recorded only twice, i.e. a period of 57 days from 5 April to 31 May 1994 and a period of 17 days from 27 March to 12 April 1995, over the long-term period of 26 years (1987–2012).

According to the water balance analysis, a total volume of 606.05 mcm inflow into Dohuk Dam was estimated as the sum of the inflow volume from streams (601.24 mcm) and that from spring waters (4.81 mcm), and a total volume of 585.46 mcm outflow from the dam was estimated as the sum of outflow volumes due to evaporation (61.12 mcm) and water withdrawals (524.34 mcm). The residual estimated storage of water that cannot be released from the dam should be 20.59 mcm (606.05–585.46 mcm; see Table 3) with corresponding 43.34% live storage of the dam (47.51 mcm; see Table 1) for a period of 26 years from 1987 to 2012.

Table 3.

Water balance analysis for Dohuk Dam.

Water balance Unit Volume 
Inflow volume from streams mcm 601.24 
Inflow volume from spring waters mcm 4.81 
Total volume of inflow into Dohuk Dam mcm 606.05 
Outflow volume due to evaporation mcm 61.12 
Water withdrawals mcm 524.34 
Total volume of outflow from Dohuk Dam mcm 585.46 
Residual volume storage mcm 20.59 
Water balance Unit Volume 
Inflow volume from streams mcm 601.24 
Inflow volume from spring waters mcm 4.81 
Total volume of inflow into Dohuk Dam mcm 606.05 
Outflow volume due to evaporation mcm 61.12 
Water withdrawals mcm 524.34 
Total volume of outflow from Dohuk Dam mcm 585.46 
Residual volume storage mcm 20.59 

Note: mcm is million cubic metres.

As the average monthly rainfall for the missing data of seven rain gauge stations can be completed with a 12-year average rainfall known as the standard reference period (2001–2012), the use of the rainfall estimates for the areas influencing the discharge of Feesh Khabour River at Zakho gauging station can be useful for setting up a complete dataset for a period of 26 years (1987–2012). Figure 5 shows the average monthly rainfall over the catchment areas influencing the discharge of Feesh Khabour River at Zakho station for a 26-year period of 1987–2012. Use of Equation (1) permits us to calculate the Feesh Khabour River discharge for the assessment of interbasin water transfer plans. The average monthly discharge variations for the Feesh Khabour River at Zakho gauging station for a 26-year period (1987–2012) as shown in Figure 5 would represent the variations of flow rate at the intake point of the interbasin water transfer from the Feesh Khabour River to Dohuk Dam. The maximum flow rates recorded for several years, such as in May 1990, at Zakho station were higher than 608.9 mcm month−1 (19.6 mcm d−1) while the minimum flow rate of 9.2 mcm month−1 (0.3 mcm d−1) was recorded in November 1986. It is assumed to be reliable that approximately 3% of the minimum river discharge is safe to be transferred from the Feesh Khabour River to Dohuk Dam.
Fig. 5.

Seasonal patterns of the Feesh Khabour River discharge at Zakho gauging station and average monthly rainfall on the areas of influencing the discharge of Feesh Khabour River at Zakho gauging station.

Fig. 5.

Seasonal patterns of the Feesh Khabour River discharge at Zakho gauging station and average monthly rainfall on the areas of influencing the discharge of Feesh Khabour River at Zakho gauging station.

Implications of the 24 alternative scenarios

The best-case scenario for managing water in Dohuk Dam for all the seasons is that the dam could provide the significant water levels never amounting to more than 615.75 masl nor less than 614 masl, besides the allocation of available water never failing to supply adequate domestic water and water for irrigation. In this study, the development of 24 different alternative scenarios, varying the assumptions associated with the four future water management strategies (Martínez-Alvarez et al., 2014; Ke et al., 2016), was used to analyse the water levels and the outflows of the dam as well as the needs of water for irrigation, domestic water supply and tourism purposes, as shown in Table 4. The scenarios embody a wide array of the assumptions affecting how the future water levels of Dohuk Dam might evolve with the possibility of interbasin water transfer with first priority for tourism purposes, second for domestic water supply and third for irrigation. The most useful information from the scenarios' analysis is the range of the values across different scenarios, which provides a snapshot of the riskiness of water shortage; riskier water shortages will have values that vary more across scenarios while safer adequate water levels will have more stable values across scenarios.

Table 4.

Scenarios development for future water management practices.

Scenario planning Observation scenarios 
Sca IWb (m3 d−1DWSc (L d−1 cap−1IRd (mm d−1IWTe (m3 d−1MF at 614f MF at 615.75g MWLh (masl) HSOi (mcm per month) LSOj (mcm per month) MFF-DWSk MFF-IWl 
– – 0.00 – 269 615.75 9.80 0.00 – – 
– – 0.00 10,000 279 615.75 10.13 0.30 – – 
– – 0.25 – 270 615.75 9.79 0.00 – – 
– – 0.25 10,000 279 615.75 10.12 0.29 – – 
– – 0.50 – 268 615.73 9.77 0.00 – – 
– – 0.50 10,000 279 615.75 10.10 0.27 – – 
– 280 0.00 – 183 57 579.04 8.36 0.00 16 – 
– 280 0.00 10,000 133 76 580.68 8.69 0.00 – 
– 280 0.25 – 184 57 578.64 8.34 0.00 17 – 
10 – 280 0.25 10,000 138 75 578.30 8.67 0.00 – 
11 – 280 0.50 – 186 56 577.52 8.32 0.00 17 – 
12 – 280 0.50 10,000 140 75 579.98 8.65 0.00 – 
13 50,000 – 0.00 – 77 128 612.49 9.80 0.00 – 
14 50,000 – 0.00 10,000 37 143 613.25 10.13 0.00 – 
15 50,000 – 0.25 – 79 128 612.45 9.79 0.00 – 
16 50,000 – 0.25 10,000 40 143 613.21 10.12 0.00 – 
17 50,000 – 0.50 – 82 127 612.40 9.77 0.00 – 
18 50,000 – 0.50 10,000 41 143 613.17 10.10 0.00 – 
19 50,000 280 0.00 – 225 42 577.34 7.12 0.00 47 31 
20 50,000 280 0.00 10,000 214 48 578.71 7.45 0.00 26 23 
21 50,000 280 0.25 – 226 42 575.92 7.11 0.00 47 32 
22 50,000 280 0.25 10,000 214 47 578.79 7.44 0.00 26 24 
23 50,000 280 0.50 – 226 42 576.87 7.09 0.00 47 33 
24 50,000 280 0.50 10,000 214 47 578.80 7.42 0.00 28 22 
Scenario planning Observation scenarios 
Sca IWb (m3 d−1DWSc (L d−1 cap−1IRd (mm d−1IWTe (m3 d−1MF at 614f MF at 615.75g MWLh (masl) HSOi (mcm per month) LSOj (mcm per month) MFF-DWSk MFF-IWl 
– – 0.00 – 269 615.75 9.80 0.00 – – 
– – 0.00 10,000 279 615.75 10.13 0.30 – – 
– – 0.25 – 270 615.75 9.79 0.00 – – 
– – 0.25 10,000 279 615.75 10.12 0.29 – – 
– – 0.50 – 268 615.73 9.77 0.00 – – 
– – 0.50 10,000 279 615.75 10.10 0.27 – – 
– 280 0.00 – 183 57 579.04 8.36 0.00 16 – 
– 280 0.00 10,000 133 76 580.68 8.69 0.00 – 
– 280 0.25 – 184 57 578.64 8.34 0.00 17 – 
10 – 280 0.25 10,000 138 75 578.30 8.67 0.00 – 
11 – 280 0.50 – 186 56 577.52 8.32 0.00 17 – 
12 – 280 0.50 10,000 140 75 579.98 8.65 0.00 – 
13 50,000 – 0.00 – 77 128 612.49 9.80 0.00 – 
14 50,000 – 0.00 10,000 37 143 613.25 10.13 0.00 – 
15 50,000 – 0.25 – 79 128 612.45 9.79 0.00 – 
16 50,000 – 0.25 10,000 40 143 613.21 10.12 0.00 – 
17 50,000 – 0.50 – 82 127 612.40 9.77 0.00 – 
18 50,000 – 0.50 10,000 41 143 613.17 10.10 0.00 – 
19 50,000 280 0.00 – 225 42 577.34 7.12 0.00 47 31 
20 50,000 280 0.00 10,000 214 48 578.71 7.45 0.00 26 23 
21 50,000 280 0.25 – 226 42 575.92 7.11 0.00 47 32 
22 50,000 280 0.25 10,000 214 47 578.79 7.44 0.00 26 24 
23 50,000 280 0.50 – 226 42 576.87 7.09 0.00 47 33 
24 50,000 280 0.50 10,000 214 47 578.80 7.42 0.00 28 22 

aSc is scenario.

bIW is irrigation water (m3 d−1).

cDWS is domestic water supply (L d−1 cap−1).

dIR is infiltration rate (mm d−1).

eIWT is interbasin water transfer (m3 d−1).

fMF at 614 is monthly frequency above 614 masl.

gMF at 615.75 is monthly frequency above 615.75 masl.

hMWL is minimum water level (masl).

iHSO is maximum spillway outflow (mcm per month).

jLSO is minimum spillway outflow (mcm per month).

kMFF-DWS is monthly frequency failure to provide drinking water supply

lMFF-IW is monthly frequency failure to provide irrigation water.

In this study, we explore a subsumptive constraints account of the predicted impacts of water management from learning of the 24 different alternative scenarios. Monthly frequency (MF) is defined as the number of months where a water level has passed a tipping point either to drop from the minimum threshold limit for touristic water level or to reach up to overflowing from the minimum threshold limit for the spillway overflow water level. Monthly frequency fail (MFF) is defined as the number of months that the water storage availability in Dohuk Dam has failed to meet the water demand needs for either domestic uses or agricultural lands. In Scenarios 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, the scenario planning was designed to put better information about alternative futures in the water management practices with more emphasis on tourism purposes, but was not designed to provide water supplies for domestic water and irrigation. Based on the analysis of the 298-month period, the water levels shown in these scenarios have never been lower than 614 masl; however, they could have amounted to higher than 615.75 masl (268 times (89.93% MF in average) for Scenarios 1, 3 and 5 and 279 times (93.62% MF) for Scenarios 2, 4 and 6). A maximum outflow of around 10.12 mcm month−1 is due to interbasin water transfer which can affect the water flow over the spillway, with a minimum spillway outflow of around 0.29 mcm month−1 for Scenarios 2, 4 and 6 and a value higher than around 9.79 mcm month−1 for Scenarios 1, 3 and 5. The minimum spillway outflow for Scenarios 1, 3 and 5 should not occur because the prediction of the minimum water level is around or below 615.75 masl.

The design of Scenarios 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 prioritises the importance of a reliable and safe domestic water supply and thus needs to make efficient risk management necessary for the water utilities. Based on the analysis of the 26-year period, the water levels in Dohuk Dam drop below 614 masl around 184 times (61.74% MF) for Scenarios 7, 9, and 11, and 137 times (45.97% MF) for Scenarios 8, 10 and 12; however, they could have amounted to higher than 615.75 masl 57 times (19.13% MF) for Scenarios 7, 9 and 11 and 75 times (25.17% MF) for Scenarios 8, 10 and 12, with the minimum water levels in excess of 577.5 masl. Approximately 8.67 mcm month−1 of the maximum outflow caused by interbasin water transfer of 10,000 m3 d−1 can affect the water flow over the spillway for Scenarios 8, 10 and 12 and is slightly higher than the approximate 8.34 mcm month−1 for Scenarios 7, 9 and 11 (without intervening by interbasin water transfer). The minimum spillway outflow for these scenarios should not occur due to the prediction of the minimum water level of around 579.03 masl which is far below the minimum threshold limit of 615.75 masl for spillway overflow. The set of these scenarios must provide the means of tying information from six alternative strategies together in a way that highlights the differences between the potential water management futures for Scenarios 7, 9 and 11 without a stored supply of water and for Scenarios 8, 10 and 12 with the influence of interbasin water transfer. Highlighting the positive impact of transferring water from the Feesh Khabour River to Dohuk Dam on the provision of safe drinking water, this transfer can reduce the monthly frequency failure to provide domestic water supply from 17 times (5.70% MFF) to 4 times (1.34% MFF) on the basis of hydrological data analysis for a 26-year period (1987–2012).

In Scenarios 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 and 18, the scenario planning was designed to highly prioritise all the needs for water to irrigate the agricultural lands, but was not designed to provide water for domestic water supply. The water level drops below 614 masl with low frequency, expected to be around 79 times (26.51% MF) for Scenarios 13, 15 and 17 and 39 times (13.09% MF) for Scenarios 14, 16 and 18, but the water levels could have amounted with moderate frequency to higher than 615.75 masl, i.e. 128 times (42.95% MF) for Scenarios 13, 15 and 17 and 143 times (47.99% MF) for Scenarios 14, 16 and 18, with minimum water levels of around 612.63 masl (about 3 m below 615.75 masl). A maximum outflow of approximately 10.12 mcm month−1 due to interbasin water transfer can affect the water flow over the spillway for Scenarios 14, 16 and 18 similarly to Scenarios 2, 4 and 6, but without a minimum spillway outflow, and is higher than that of approximately 9.79 mcm month−1 for Scenarios 13, 15 and 17 similarly to Scenarios 1, 3 and 5.

The narrative description of Scenarios 19, 20, 21, 22, 23 and 24 attempts to answer the questions from a major challenge in ensuring sustainable water services for domestic water supply and irrigation, in order to maintain relatively constant pressure regardless of the demands for water. The rolling frequency of the water level drops below 614 masl could be very important, with around 226 occurrences (75.84% MF) for Scenarios 19, 21 and 23 and 214 occurrences (71.81% MF) for Scenarios 20, 22 and 24. The minimum water levels of around 577.75 masl are (at 38 m) very far below 615.75 masl or 36.25 m below 614 masl. Approximately 7.44 mcm month−1 of the maximum outflow could be affected by water levels of more than 615.75 masl for Scenarios 20, 22 and 24 which is more important than the approximate 7.11 mcm month−1 for Scenarios 19, 21 and 23. The rolling frequency of around 27 occurrences (9.06% MFF) for Scenarios 20, 22 and 24 is due to the effect of interbasin water transfer on the provision of domestic water for the Dohuk city and is better than the 47 occurrences (15.77% MFF) for Scenarios 19, 21 and 23. The rolling frequency of around 23 occurrences (7.72% MFF) for Scenarios 20, 22 and 24 might have a positive impact on the interbasin water transfer for irrigating the agricultural lands and is better than the 32 occurrences (10.74% MFF) for Scenarios 19, 21 and 23. Even though the effect of interbasin water transfer can minimise MFF in ensuring sustainable water for domestic water supply and irrigation, water overflowed through the spillway can increase significantly during the periods of surplus water availability. With the stored water reaching its full level of 615.75 masl for all 24 alternative scenarios during the periods of abundance of water, the next step of determining the specific strategy for managing the surplus water and increasing the interbasin water transfer would be the key factor in future water management practice. Therefore, the three best-case scenarios of 20, 22 and 24, in terms of likely cost and benefit outcomes, involve the needs of water supply for agricultural, domestic and tourism purposes. These scenarios stimulate water allocations in better management options, meaning that the limited amounts of interbasin water transfer are conveyed in a flexible and timely manner, and the government policies and economic regulator are driven by the requirement to maintain efficiency from the perspective of customer bills. This provides incentives for adoption of these three best scenarios, resulting in the best possible outcomes.

Conclusions

This study used two different sources, direct measurements and report data calculation, to create a compilation of the long-term hydrological datasets for a period of 26 years. The investigation of the trends in long-term series of hydrological data was of paramount scientific and practical significance for analysing the amount of water available in Dohuk Dam and the discharge of Feesh Khabour River. An interbasin water transfer was recommended to transfer water with a flow rate of 10,000 m3 d−1 or more from Feesh Khabour River at an intake point near the Zakho gauging station to increase the amount of water available for Dohuk Dam. The water balance analysis consisting of 24 alternative scenarios was performed based on four strategies to check the robustness of adaption decisions for the future management practices of water resources for agricultural, domestic and tourism purposes. The compilation of long-term series of hydrological data and then the development of 24 alternative scenarios based on the combination of collected and simulated hydrological data can have significant features for water management practices, particularly for any regions of the Earth with limited hydrological data and lack of the mechanisms to continuously monitor the trends in hydrological and climatic variables.

Acknowledgement

The study used the financial support of Exploratory Research Grant Schemes (ERGS) (Vot: 4L059) from Ministry of Education, Malaysia. The ERGS provided by the ministry was greatly appreciated.

References

References
Ahmed
M. R.
Kheder
M. K.
(
2009
).
Assessment drinking water of Dahuk city
.
Journal of Duhok University
12
(
1
),
28
34
.
Al-Ansari
N.
Ali
A. A.
Knutsson
S.
(
2014
).
Present conditions and future challenges of water resources problems in Iraq
.
Journal of Water Resource and Protection
6
(
12
),
1066
1098
.
Ararat
K.
Abid
I. M.
Abdul Rahman
S.
(
2008
).
Key Biodiversity Survey of Kurdistan, Northern Iraq. Nature Iraq Field Report
,
Kurdistan
,
Iraq
.
Dawidek
J.
Ferencz
B.
(
2014
).
Water balance of selected floodplain lake basins in the Middle Bug River valley
.
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences
18
(
4
),
1457
1465
.
de Andrade
J. G. P.
Barbosa
P. S. F.
Souza
L. C. A.
Makino
D. L.
(
2011
).
Interbasin water transfers: the Brazilian experience and international case comparisons
.
Water Resources Management
25
(
8
),
1915
1934
.
El-Ashry
M. T.
(
1994
).
Water resources management for the next century
.
Interciencia
19
(
3
),
117
119
.
Faeth
P.
Weinthal
E.
(
2012
).
How access to clean water prevents conflict
.
Solutions
3
(
1
),
70
76
.
Feungpean
M.
Panyapinyopol
B.
Elefsiniotis
P.
Fongsatitkul
P.
(
2015
).
Development of statistical models for trihalomethane (THM) occurrence in a water distribution network in Central Thailand
.
Urban Water Journal
12
(
4
),
275
282
.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)
(
2004
).
Rural Household Survey in Iraq
.
Vol. 2
,
Northern Iraq, FAO
,
Rome
,
Italy
.
Fouli
Y.
Cade-Menun
B. J.
Cutforth
H. B.
(
2013
).
Freeze-thaw cycles and soil water content effects on infiltration rate of three Saskatchewan soils
.
Canadian Journal of Soil Science
93
(
4
),
485
496
.
Freeman
M. C.
Buell
G. R.
Hay
L. E.
Hughes
W. B.
Jacobson
R. B.
Jones
J. W.
Jones
S. A.
Lafontaine
J. H.
Odom
K. R.
Peterson
J. T.
Riley
J. W.
Schindler
J. S.
Shea
C.
Weaver
J. D.
(
2013
).
Linking river management to species conservation using dynamic landscape-scale models
.
River Research and Applications
29
(
7
),
906
918
.
Fulazzaky
M. A.
Gany
A. H. A.
(
2009
).
Challenges of soil erosion and sludge management for sustainable development in Indonesia
.
Journal of Environmental Management
90
(
8
),
2387
2392
.
Fulazzaky
M. A.
Khamidun
M. H.
Yusof
B.
(
2013
).
Sediment traps from synthetic construction site stormwater runoff by grassed filter strip
.
Journal of Hydrology
502
(
2013
),
53
61
.
Fulazzaky
M. A.
Yusop
Z.
Ibrahim
I.
Kassim
A. H. M.
(
2014
).
A new technique using the aero-infiltrometer to characterise the natural soils based on the measurements of infiltration rate and soil moisture content
.
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions
11
(
2
),
2515
2553
.
Hillel
D.
(
2012
).
Soil and Water: Physical Principles and Processes
.
Elsevier, Academic Press
,
London
,
UK
.
Jain
S. K.
Agarwal
P. K.
Singh
V. P.
(
2007
).
Hydrology and Water Resources of India. Series: Water Science and Technology Library
.
Vol. 57
,
Springer
,
New York
,
USA
.
Jury
W. A.
Vaux
H.
Jr
(
2005
).
The role of science in solving the world's emerging water problems
.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
102
(
44
),
15715
15720
.
Karamouz
M.
Nazif
S.
(
2008
).
Middle Eastern hydrologic history and water developments
. In:
Proceedings of World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2008
, pp.
1
16
.
Ke
W.
Lei
Y.
Sha
J.
Zhang
G.
Yan
J.
Lin
X.
Pan
X.
(
2016
).
Dynamic simulation of water resource management focused on water allocation and water reclamation in Chinese mining cities
.
Water Policy
18
(
4
),
844
861
.
DOI:10.2166/wp.2016.085
Konar
M.
Todd
M. J.
Muneepeerakul
R.
Rinaldo
A.
Rodriguez-Iturbe
I.
(
2013
).
Hydrology as a driver of biodiversity: controls on carrying capacity, niche formation, and dispersal
.
Advances in Water Resources
51
(
2013
),
317
325
.
Li
Q.
Wang
N.
(
2012
).
Research on grey water balance equation of river basin
. In:
Proceedings of 2012 Asia Pacific Conference on Environmental Science and Technology (APEST 2012)
,
Kuala Lumpur
,
Malaysia
.
Luna
E. J. R.
Poteau
D.
(
2011
).
Water Level Fluctuations of Lake Enriquillo and Lake Saumatre in Response to Environmental Changes
.
M. Eng Projects
,
Cornell University
,
New York
,
USA
.
Luo
Y.
Chang
X.
Peng
S.
Khan
S.
Wang
W.
Zheng
Q.
Cai
X.
(
2014
).
Short-term forecasting of daily reference evapotranspiration using the Hargreaves–Samani model and temperature forecasts
.
Agricultural Water Management
136
(
2014
),
42
51
.
Martínez-Alvarez
V.
García-Bastida
P. A.
Martin-Gorriz
B.
Soto-García
M.
(
2014
).
Adaptive strategies of on-farm water management under water supply constraints in south-eastern Spain
.
Agricultural Water Management
136
(
2014
),
49
67
.
Misra
A. K.
Saxena
A.
Yaduvanshi
M.
Mishra
A.
Bhadauriya
Y.
Thakur
A.
(
2007
).
Proposed river-linking project of India: a boon or bane to nature
.
Environmental Geology
51
(
8
),
1361
1376
.
Mohammed
J.
(
2013
).
Rapid urban growth in the city of Duhok, Iraqi Kurdistan Region: an integrated approach of GIS, remote sensing and Shannon entropy application
.
International Journal of Geomatics and Geosciences
4
(
2
),
325
341
.
Noori
B. M. A.
Ismaeel
K. S.
(
2011
).
Evaluation of seepage and stability of Dohuk Dam
.
Al-Rafidain Engineering Journal
19
(
1
),
42
58
.
Oñate
E.
Owen
R.
(
2011
).
Particle-Based Methods: Fundamentals and Applications
.
Springer
,
Dordrecht
,
Heidelberg, London, UK
.
Quinn
F. H.
Guerra
B.
(
1986
).
Current perspectives on the Lake Erie water balance
.
Journal of Great Lakes Research
12
(
2
),
109
116
.
Ramos
J. G.
Cratchley
C. R.
Kay
J. A.
Casterad
M. A.
Martínez-Cob
A.
Domínguez
R.
(
2009
).
Evaluation of satellite evapotranspiration estimates using ground-meteorological data available for the Flumen District into the Ebro Valley of N.E. Spain
.
Agricultural Water Management
96
(
4
),
638
652
.
Sanford
S. E.
Creed
I. F.
Tague
C. L.
Beall
F. D.
Buttle
J. M.
(
2007
).
Scale-dependence of natural variability of flow regimes in a forested landscape
.
Water Resources Research
43
(
8
),
W08414
.
Shareef
K. M.
Muhamad
S. G.
(
2008
).
Natural and drinking water quality in Erbil, Kurdistan
.
Current World Environment
3
(
2
),
227
238
.
Shiklomanov
I. A.
(
2003
).
World Water Resources at the Beginning of the Twenty-First Century. International Hydrology Series
.
Cambridge University Press
,
Cambridge
,
UK
.
Sivapragasam
C.
Vasudevan
G.
Maran
J.
Bose
C.
Kaza
S.
Ganesh
N.
(
2009
).
Modelling evaporation-seepage losses for reservoir water balance in semi-arid regions
.
Water Resources Management
23
(
5
),
853
867
.
United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) & German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR)
(
2013
).
Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia
.
Salim Dabbous Printing Company
,
Beirut
,
Lebanon
.
World Commission on Dams (WCD)
(
2000
).
Dams and Development: A New Framework for Decision-Making
.
Earthscan
,
London
,
UK
.
Wurbs
R. A.
(
1987
).
Reservoir management in Texas
.
Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management
113
(
1
),
130
148
.
Zhao
L.
Li
Y.
Jiang
F.
Wang
H.
Ren
S.
Liu
Y.
Ouyang
Z.
(
2015
).
Comparative advantage for the areas irrigated with underground blue water in North China Plain
.
Water Policy
17
(
6
),
1033
1044
.