In recognition of the United Nations designating 2003 as the “Year for Fresh Water” and the endorsement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) in water and sanitation, the United Nations Association of Greater Boston (UNA-GB) convened speakers to address strategies for meeting these goals. Water professionals from the public sector, private sector and non-governmental organizations shared their experiences and recommendations. Over the course of the discussions, three themes emerged that appear critical for implementing successful water initiatives. First, the water and sanitation. nancing gap requires mobilization of local capital through innovative financial tools. Second, public institutions that manage water must be focused and enabled to carry out their mandate effectively. Private sector collaboration can only succeed when coupled with strong public partners. Third, the MDG cannot be met with conventional technological approaches. Technology must be appropriate to the. nancial and technical context to which it is applied and must engender ef.cient use of water resources.