Provisioning of water and sanitation services has become the key determinants of sustainable development. This review focuses on the trends in water and sanitation services and reforms in India and Ghana over the last two decades. The findings reveal that access to water has improved in India and Ghana at 81.5 and 92.7%, respectively. However, access to sanitation continues to be a challenge in both countries, with the currently reported coverage being 59.5 and 18.5%, respectively. The index of sustainable development goal (SDG) performance of Ghana and India stands at 65.4 and 61.9 with global rankings of 100 and 117, respectively. The adverse impacts of poor access to sanitation increasingly reflect on rising numbers of population suffering from water-borne diseases. From the policy perspective, the paper highlights the need for framing pro-poor water and sanitation policies; focusing on women and girls’ education; promoting affordable water and sanitation services; promoting the collaboration of stakeholders involved in the rural water and sanitation sectors; and increasing budgetary allocations by local governments.

  • The review compares the water and sanitation situation in India and Ghana. The urban–rural situation in the two countries is compared to ascertain the similarities and differences.

  • The review also compares the various reforms in the two countries in the water and sanitation sectors and the lessons learned.

  • Policy implication and recommendation have been made to enhance the achievement of SDG6 targets by 2030.

Graphical Abstract

Graphical Abstract
Graphical Abstract
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