This study comprehensively investigated the livelihood security scenario of fisher households (FHs) employing the CARE framework with little modifications, in Kashmir, India. Primary data for this study was collected from selected FHs, and a regression function was fitted to quantify the determinants of livelihood security. The findings revealed that fishing has been their dominant livelihood option. The landholding owned by the households was meagre enough to carry out farming or domesticate animals on commercial lines. Poor capital endowments place them at less livelihood security level; however, the respondents with diversified income have a relatively higher index value for livelihood. The regression estimates indicated that barring social and natural capital, all forms of capital have a significant role to play in securing their livelihood. Poor livelihood security, coupled with less income flow, has made their survival vulnerable to various distresses and health disorders, including the prevalence of Infant & Maternal Mortality. Their dietary intake was undesirably less than their dietary recommendations. The COVID-19 pandemic was perceived as a shock to their livelihood security. Further, public investment, which is pertinent for the growth of the fisheries sector, has shown a discouraging trend. The study concluded with a few policy suggestions for securing the livelihood of the fisher community.

  • Excessive fishing could have serious environmental impact, including the removal of target species.

  • Absence of markets can lead to failure in harnessing livelihood opportunities.

  • Emphasis should be on subsidiary occupation to supplement their income to uplift the living standards of these families.

  • There is a need for convergence in the ongoing schemes and missions to have better results from their execution.

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