There is significant potential for energy recovery through the use of micro-hydropower installations in water supply systems (WSS). To exploit the full potential of hydro energy in balance with the optimal hydraulic performance and water supply service, multi-objective management tools are needed. This paper presents the application of four management tools: (1) an energy audit to evaluate the potential hydro energy in the water pressurised systems of Alcoy; (2) multi-criteria decision-making methods for the selection of the preferred energy-efficient operation of a system with a pump-storage reservoir and hydro-turbines in the Algarve; (3) a numerical dynamic tool for optimal turbine operation in the water distribution of Langhirano; and (4) an urban water optioneering tool to estimate the hydropower potential of the external aqueduct network in Athens. These methods showed that through an integrated approach the WSS can be optimised for both hydraulic performance and hydro energy production.

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