The WHO Guidelines provide the basis for drinking water standards built around the framework for safe drinking water in which prevention of contamination is the key component. The pressure to conserve and protect water has resulted in the need to reuse treated wastewater. This is can help protect source water quantity and quality, under threat from urban and population pressure and climate change. Emerging contaminants found in wastewater from human activity at a personal, domestic and industrial level are a barrier to reuse and a concern for source water quality. Control at the ultimate source is difficult, suggesting that a new approach to the whole managed water cycle is required. Monitoring is difficult and expensive, so traditional regulation is not useful. The best point of control appears to be wastewater treatment so it is appropriate to develop technology standards with operational monitoring to deliver the necessary quality of treated wastewater. However, this requires long-term planning and investment.

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