Water supply and sanitation are important requisites for basic human needs and primary health care. Their inadequate provision has far reaching economic and humanitarian consequences. In Kenya this is well expressed in terms of child mortality. This paper analyses the mortality rate data from consecutive decennial population censuses conducted in the country from 1979. Water sources and type of sanitation are significant determinants of child mortality, as in any other developing country. The paper includes policy recommendations to help combat water- and sanitation- based child mortality – e.g. enforcing public health regulations, and making public investment in water and water treatment at point of use.

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