Ceramic membranes are being considered for reuse applications due to their durability and the ability to use strong chemicals to clean the membranes. Some pilot evaluations of different pre-treatments to ceramic membranes have been completed, and more are underway. It is clear that membranes can perform well when the pre-treatment is optimized. This could be pre-coagulation, perhaps with pre-chlorination. If ozone can be used to allow a residual on the membrane surface, then extremely high fluxes can be achieved (e.g., 300 lmh). More study is needed on the benefits of ozone on the water quality when ceramic membranes are used for reuse treatment. With a thorough understanding through continued research, perhaps ozone and ceramic microfiltration could be the basis for some future reuse applications.

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