This paper reports on the first-order Aquafin analysis on the market potential of conventional and innovative MBR concepts for upgrading STPs which are non-compliant with European standards on urban wastewater treatment. The analysis looked at the feasibility of two innovative hybrid solutions comprising both an activated sludge plant with existing clarifiers and an MBR unit (the so-called “Dual” concepts). The upgrading potential will be illustrated throughout the description and analysis of two market situations lying at the extremes of the application spectrum, namely: Bulgaria, which is representative of compliance with the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive standards, and Cyprus, which is iconic of strict, mandatory effluent standards for water reuse.

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