Solids minimization is a key consideration in the operation and cost of a treatment system, the potential disposal options for the final solids, and the sustainability of the process. Historically, solids minimization has been accomplished using wet processes that improve the digestibility. However, thermal process, including well established technologies such as incineration or heat drying, as well as some “emerging” technologies such as gasification or sludge-to-fuel options, are gaining interest. Not only do these processes reduce the total volume of material requiring disposal or reuse, but some of the processes can take advantage of the energy inherent in the solids and are being considered as net energy producers. The conclusions show substantial reduction of solids for further reuse or disposal is possible with thermal processing

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