In this paper, we discuss the possibilities for separate urine collection, treatment and reuse. Treatment technologies are discussed per category of hygienisation, volume reduction, stabilisation, phosphorus and nitrogen removal. Several recovery products can be obtained, of which the slow-release fertiliser struvite is the most common.
Urine can also be applied as a fertiliser itself, after hygienisation and reducing ammonia loss to a minimum. It is shown that urine is well worth being regarded as a resource and not merely a waste stream. In combination with onsite sanitation, even without reuse, urine separation contributes to prevention of groundwater pollution.