How to select the most cost-effective sustainable option for a sanitation system in the context of an urban or suburban area in a developing country? What expertise is available? Where to begin? In fact, the challenge is not in selecting the right source separation technology or recovery option but in applying it efficiently in the field. The technologies need to be combined with adequate financial and social structures in order to improve sanitary conditions and finally to achieve sustainability and the goal of the sanitation millennium (MDG sanitation target, 7). The article reviews the existing expertise and draws lessons from past experiences in the private sector (management contracts and projects).

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