Human pathogenic viruses (HPVs) with particular reference to norovirus (NoV) commonly known as ‘the winter vomiting bug’ is the leading causes of viral gastroenteritis worldwide. NoV is present in wastewater in high numbers and coupled with a low infectious dose can endanger public health. Secondary wastewater treatment processes are not designed to eradicate HPVs thus a tertiary disinfection step is required. Typical pathogen removal processes include slow sand filtration and membrane barrier methods. NoV cannot be cultured in a laboratory and so its sole detection is limited to expensive and time-consuming molecular methods. The use of an alternative virus, the FRNA bacteriophages has been suggested as a surrogate for NoV due to its physicochemical similarities and cultivability. This research focuses on the investigation of a barrier method of tertiary disinfection using membrane filters and tangential flow filtration. In addition to this, the suitability of FRNA bacteriophages as a cheaper alternative indicator of NoV was investigated.
Detection and removal of pathogenic norovirus employing tertiary treatment in wastewater and water treatment facilities
K. Fitzhenry, M. Barrett, V. O'Flaherty, W. Dore, S. Keaveney, M. Cormican, E. Clifford; Detection and removal of pathogenic norovirus employing tertiary treatment in wastewater and water treatment facilities. Water Practice and Technology 1 September 2014; 9 (3): 370–376. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wpt.2014.039
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