The Yellow River or “Mother River of China” no longer flows into the sea these days because of extensive use of its limited water resources. This paper will present the remarkable story about water resources and its effect on the Yellow River, focusing on the phenomena of dry-up (zero-runoff) in recent years, its reasons, impacts, and possible counter-measures. The essential reasons for dry ups in the watershed are that the Yellow River basin is located in an arid and semi-arid region, its water resources are limited, and global warming and other vital human activities are adversely impacting the watershed hydrology. The dry up issue has resulted in many serious problems, from agriculture to industry, from domestic to environmental, and from water quantity to water quality. The main countermeasures proposed in this paper include: water savings, water management, increased regulation, water transfer, and rational and practical groundwater use.

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