Sewage sludge is of increasing concern in China, due to extended sewerage control and advanced wastewater treatments resulting from urbanization and economic growth. Based on the evolution of municipal sewage generation and treatment technologies in the last decade, as well as the long-term national and local plans in China, the paper elucidates production, distribution and characteristics (organics, nutrients, heat value, heavy metals, trace pollutants, pathogens) of sludge in some typical districts of China. The status and challenges of sludge management are discussed.

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