Within the last decades in Europe, the EU standards have become stricter for the nitrogen concentration in effluent and the nitrogen removal performance in WWTP; many methods and strategies to improve the efficiency of WWTP have been developed. This paper will give an overview of the conventional technologies as well as advanced technologies using bio-augmentation, partial nitrification, and fully autotrophic ammonia oxidation. Compared to the German design guidelines A 131, in which the specific reaction volume is recommended from 150 to 250 l/PE, the optimized specific reaction volume of about 120 l/PE is significantly smaller. Furthermore, the bio-augmentation technologies with integrated sludge liquor treatment can reduce the specific reaction volume up to 50 l/PE.

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