Focusing on the improvement of removal efficiency of humic substances by coagulation, coagulation-flocculation processes were applied not only once but more than twice to the water being treated, and the effect of repeated coagulation was evaluated in jar-tests. With more than the critical dosage of PACl (15 mg/l), approximately 30% of color removal was attained in typical one-pass treatment, whilst maximum 65% removal was achieved by repeating the coagulation twice. Repeating coagulation enhances the coagulation process to achieve higher color removal efficiency, and can reduce the coagulant dosage.
Research Article|June 01 2009
Removal of Humic Substances by Repeated Mixing with PACl
Water Practice and Technology (2009) 4 (2): wpt2009021.
H. Nagare, T. Aso, S. Yoshida, K. Ebie; Removal of Humic Substances by Repeated Mixing with PACl. Water Practice and Technology 1 June 2009; 4 (2): wpt2009021. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wpt.2009.021
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