Smallholder farmers in South Africa are facing increased pressure to manage water use due to growing scarcity and environmental water demand. This prompts the need to build resilient irrigation systems particularly for smallholder farmers. Building resilience is more pertinent in Limpopo province where crop and animal production is hampered by water scarcity. Currently, there is an array of generic adaptation strategies for attaining resilient irrigation schemes in South Africa and beyond. However, the effectiveness and feasibility of these resilience measures at farm level particularly, among smallholders in marginalised areas are not well researched in Limpopo Province. The current paper draw lessons from adaptation mechanisms in Southern Africa, indicate areas that require further studies and recommend ways for enhancing smallholder resilience against water scarcity. The article contributes to efforts to enhance water security and fulfil the targets set in sustainable development goal 2 of zero hunger, South Africa Vision 2030 and the government's food security mandate particularly through suggesting ways for enhancing smallholder famer resilience and water security.

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