Rapid population growth and the need to mitigate the impact of rainfall-runoff has made groundwater conservation a significant environmental issue in Indonesia's Ciliwung Watershed. The availability of recharge wells in developed areas is essential for groundwater conservation and runoff reduction. Selection of suitable locations for the construction of recharge wells depends on a combination of factors such as topography, soil layers, land use, and climatology. This study of land suitability for recharge well development in the Ciliwung Watershed, an area of heterogenous land use, employed GPS-based weighted data on technical geology, soil type, soil hydrology group, groundwater level, slope, average rainfall, and land use. Mathematical simulations were performed to develop a land suitability map. The findings indicate that only 2% of the total area (in Cisarua, Bogor) is ideal for the construction of recharge wells, and that 48% of existing recharge wells in the Jakarta area are situated in a suitable zone. The results provide a basis for technical recommendations for future construction of recharge wells in the Ciliwung Watershed.

INTRODUCTION

Jakarta is located in a delta that serves as an estuary for 14 rivers (Samsuhadi 2009). In hydrogeological terms, the Ciliwung Watershed is the most influential catchment area in the region (Hendrayanto 2008), passing through two provinces: Jakarta and West Java. The Ciliwung Watershed has experienced rapid population growth and urban sprawl from Jakarta to the surrounding areas of Depok, Bogor, Tangerang, and Bekasi, and one notable negative impact of this expansion in the Jabodetabek (Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, Bekasi) region is the lack of clean water infrastructure. As the piped water supply is limited, a significant proportion of the population uses groundwater for both domestic and industrial purposes. A water supply of guaranteed quality and quantity is one of the essential elements for continued economic prosperity (Yu et al. 2014), and uncontrolled groundwater exploration without appropriate conservation measures can causes a serious decline in the availability and quality of water, as well as a declining groundwater level (Braadbaart & Braadbart 1997).

In managing groundwater effectively, it is important to consider any technology or approach that may contribute to conservation (Riastika 2011). Common methods include the construction of dams, artificial lakes, stabilization ponds, and recharge wells. Of these, the construction of recharge wells is an attractive option, as it is a simple and relatively low-cost technology that can be applied to almost all aquifer systems to store and increase groundwater levels, improve water quality, and reduce runoff, and does not require large-scale land acquisition (Ravichandran et al. 2011).

Many studies have shown that recharge wells can significantly enhance the field capacity of soil, allowing more effective water infiltration. Sunjoto (2011) and Patel et al. (2011) designed recharge wells and conducted simulations to estimate the amount of recharged water, and both concluded that there is a connection between the geometric factor of the recharge well and its ability to recharge. Based on soil sample tests showing that soil types differ in their permeability value, the design of recharge wells must take account of soil type. Bhalerao & Kelkar (2013) reported that the construction of recharge wells can produce satisfactory results if properly planned, basing project location on aquifer suitability, hydrometeorology, and hydrology characteristics. Selection of an appropriate recharge well depends on topographic conditions, geology and soil characteristics, quality and quantity of water recharged and economic factors. This aligns with Sarup et al. (2011), who stated that the location of the recharge well should consider geological conditions, land use, land cover, water body, and other basic information. In summary, the technical and physical conditions of the site will significantly affect the effectiveness of recharge wells (Gale et al. 2002).

In response to the serious threat of declining groundwater levels in the Jabodetabek area, the governor of Jakarta issued Governor Regulation No. 20/2013 concerning recharge wells. The regulation strongly recommends optimized development of recharge wells to capture, store, and increase groundwater and to minimize rainfall-runoff, so reducing flood volume and area of inundation, as well as providing an additional water supply in the dry season. Since then, recharge wells have gradually been developed in Jakarta and surrounding areas. According to data from the Industry and Energy Agency of Jakarta, about 5,672 recharge wells had been developed in Jakarta by 2014. However, most of the Jakarta area is characterized by clay soil, which may be unsuitable for recharge wells, and the effectiveness of these recharge wells in terms of land suitability remains unknown.

To plan the construction of recharge wells in a large heterogeneous area like the Ciliwung Watershed, the scenario must include location criteria in the design of recharge wells, along with the optimum volume of water to be recharged. However, existing construction of recharge wells in the Jakarta area has not taken account of these issues, as the main consideration was groundwater threshold. The aim of the present study was to evaluate land suitability for recharge wells development in the Ciliwung Watershed, as identification of suitable locations is crucial in designing these wells. The results of this study can provide technical recommendations and a point of reference for local government in managing and conserving groundwater through the development of recharge wells in their own area.

METHODS

The main objective of this study was to identify appropriate locations for the siting of recharge wells in the Ciliwung Watershed by compiling and weighting GIS data in the form of thematic maps. The essential data include soil hydrology group, groundwater level, slope, average rainfall, and land use. The land suitability map produced by overlaying several maps using GIS can be used to propose suitable locations and design for recharge wells.

Study area

The Ciliwung Watershed is located at longitude 106 °47′137″–107 °01′01″ East and latitude 6 °05′13″–6 °46′30″ South (see Figure 1). The length of the main Ciliwung River is about 117 km, and the watershed covers an area of about 38,176 hectares (Hendrayanto 2008). The Ciliwung River crosses the two provinces of DKI Jakarta and West Java, flowing through six regions: Bogor Regency, Bogor City, Depok City, South Jakarta, Central Jakarta, and North Jakarta. The watershed can be divided into three zones: upstream, middle, and downstream. The upstream part, in Katulampa water gate, includes Bogor Regency and Bogor City; the catchment area is about 146 km2, in an area of mountainous topography ranging in height from 300 to 3,000 meters above sea level. According to the land use plan for West Java Province, the area is allocated for conservation, agro-industry, and agro-tourism. The middle part of the Ciliwung Watershed is located between Katulampa water gate and Ratujaya water gate Depok and includes Bogor Regency, Bogor City, and Depok City. The catchment area is about 94 km2, lying on plane land at a height of 100–300 meters above sea level. The downstream part of the Ciliwung Watershed crosses South Jakarta, Central Jakarta, West Jakarta, and North Jakarta. The catchment area is about 82 km2, at a height of 0–100 meters above sea level.
Figure 1

Map of study area and sampling locations of soil permeability.

Figure 1

Map of study area and sampling locations of soil permeability.

GPS-based data

The land suitability map required the compilation of 6 main thematic maps: technical geology, soil type, soil hydrology group, groundwater level, slope, and average rainfall intensity. To determine the ideal location of recharge wells, ArcGIS was used to compile and analyse those data.

Following Sarup et al. (2011), suitability for recharge well construction was determined for each parameter in terms of five categories: excellent, good, moderate, poor, and very poor (see Table 1). The percentage weighting shown in Table 1 is based on the most influential factor for land suitability. As slope and soil hydrology group are the most influential factors, both of these factors have a weighting of 20%. Average rainfall intensity also plays a major role in this weighting process, as precipitation must be accurately measured for deployment of water resources (Jiang et al. 2016). The present study adapted Sarup et al.'s (2011) classification of values and categories, based on least to most beneficial for construction of recharge wells. Each weighting parameter from the 6 thematic maps in Table 1 was then utilized to calculate the weighting score for each attribute as follows. 
formula
1
where k is calculated attributes, n is number of attributes, Wk is percentage in value of weighting, Vjk is given value for the particular class.
Table 1

Thematic maps to determine land suitability for recharge wells: values and weightings

Thematic map Class Category Value Weighting (%) 
Technical geology Igneous rock Very poor 15 
River, coastal and dike coast sediment Poor 
Volcanic alluvial fan and river sediment Moderate 
Further weathering of volcanic rocks (smooth) Good 
Further weathering of volcanic rocks (hard) Excellent 
Soil type Hidraquent Very poor 15 
Tropaquept Poor 
Paleudult Moderate 
Distropept and Eutropept Good 
Vitrandept Excellent 
Soil hydrology group Very poor 20 
Moderate 
Good 
Excellent 
Groundwater level 1–5 m Very poor 15 
5–10 m Poor 
10–20 m Moderate 
20–30 m Good 
>30 m Excellent 
Slope Steep – very steep Very poor 20 
Slightly steep Poor 
Sloping Moderate 
Very sloping Good 
Flat – almost flat Excellent 
Average rainfall intensity 1,500–2,000 mm/year Very poor 15 
2,000–2,500 mm/year Poor 
2,500–3,000 mm/year Moderate 
3,000–3,500 mm/year Good 
>3,500 mm/year Excellent 
Thematic map Class Category Value Weighting (%) 
Technical geology Igneous rock Very poor 15 
River, coastal and dike coast sediment Poor 
Volcanic alluvial fan and river sediment Moderate 
Further weathering of volcanic rocks (smooth) Good 
Further weathering of volcanic rocks (hard) Excellent 
Soil type Hidraquent Very poor 15 
Tropaquept Poor 
Paleudult Moderate 
Distropept and Eutropept Good 
Vitrandept Excellent 
Soil hydrology group Very poor 20 
Moderate 
Good 
Excellent 
Groundwater level 1–5 m Very poor 15 
5–10 m Poor 
10–20 m Moderate 
20–30 m Good 
>30 m Excellent 
Slope Steep – very steep Very poor 20 
Slightly steep Poor 
Sloping Moderate 
Very sloping Good 
Flat – almost flat Excellent 
Average rainfall intensity 1,500–2,000 mm/year Very poor 15 
2,000–2,500 mm/year Poor 
2,500–3,000 mm/year Moderate 
3,000–3,500 mm/year Good 
>3,500 mm/year Excellent 

The value of weigthing score calculated from Equation (1) was then converted into land suitability classification as presented in Table 2.

Table 2

Classification of land suitability

Weigthing Score Classification 
0–30 Highly unqualified 
30–44 Unqualified 
44–58 Less qualified 
58–72 Enough to qualify 
72–86 Qualified 
86–100 Highly qualified 
Weigthing Score Classification 
0–30 Highly unqualified 
30–44 Unqualified 
44–58 Less qualified 
58–72 Enough to qualify 
72–86 Qualified 
86–100 Highly qualified 

Data collection

Data (mostly secondary) on required soil characteristics were obtained from relevant agencies that included the Geological Agency of Indonesia, the Ministry of Agriculture, and the Research Center for Soil and Agro-climate. These data included technical geology maps, soil type maps, soil hydrology group maps, groundwater level maps, and land use maps. Soil permeability was measured directly (primary data), based on soil samples collected from 4 sampling points distributed upstream to downstream, including the road side of Jogjogan at Cisarua Bogor; Pajajaran Regency at Bogor, the Universitas Indonesia Campus at Depok, and Sukapura Sub-District in North Jakarta (see Figure 1). For representative sampling of existing soil permeability conditions in the Jakarta area, the final sampling point was outside the Ciliwung Watershed. To determine soil permeability, these samples were then tested in the soil mechanics laboratory of the Faculty of Engineering at Universitas Indonesia.

Evaluation of land suitability

The evaluation of land suitability involved overlaying the existing map of recharge wells and the land suitability map, using ArcGIS 10.1. The main target of the evaluation was to establish what percentage of existing recharge wells in the Jakarta area were on suitable land. The existing map of recharge wells was redrawn by processing (digitizing) the coordinates of recharge wells, based on the 2014 data provided by the Industrial and Energy Agency of Jakarta.

Recharge wells design

A simple design was developed to estimate the dimension of recharge wells that might be implemented in the Ciliwung Watershed. The main data required for the design related to the volume of water from excessive rainfall-runoff over the given area. These data were obtained from rainfall analysis and calculation of recharge well dimensions.

Rainfall analysis

The designed rainfall intensity for the rainfall-runoff analysis was calculated on the basis of maximum daily rainfall data from eight rainfall station as shown in Table 3. The rainfall data were then analyzed using the extreme Log-Pearson Type III distribution.

Table 3

Selected rainfall stations in the Ciliwung Watershed

No. Station Latitude Longitude Data availability Average yearly rainfall (mm/year) 
Sunter 6 °09′21.46″S 106 °50′30.35″E 2005–2011 1,556 
Manggarai 6 °12′45.21″S 106 °51′06.35″E 2,044 
Depok 6 °24′08.94″S 106 °47′39.27″E 2,562 
Kranji 6 °13′44.13″S 106 58′32.54″E 3,474 
Cibongas 6 °19′50.28″S 106 °58′03.50″E 4,474 
Empang 6 °36′59.70″S 106 °48′05.81″E 3,739 
Katulampa 6 °37′59.70″S 106 °50′14.21″E 3,826 
Gunung Mas 6 °42′25.26″S 106 °58′04.96″E 3,151 
No. Station Latitude Longitude Data availability Average yearly rainfall (mm/year) 
Sunter 6 °09′21.46″S 106 °50′30.35″E 2005–2011 1,556 
Manggarai 6 °12′45.21″S 106 °51′06.35″E 2,044 
Depok 6 °24′08.94″S 106 °47′39.27″E 2,562 
Kranji 6 °13′44.13″S 106 58′32.54″E 3,474 
Cibongas 6 °19′50.28″S 106 °58′03.50″E 4,474 
Empang 6 °36′59.70″S 106 °48′05.81″E 3,739 
Katulampa 6 °37′59.70″S 106 °50′14.21″E 3,826 
Gunung Mas 6 °42′25.26″S 106 °58′04.96″E 3,151 

Source: Rainfall Station Data, 2005–2011.

The basic Log Pearson Type III equation is 
formula
2
The statistical parameter used are x mean, deviation standard, skewness coefficient (Cs), and x mean logarithm. G is the coefficient of Log Pearson Type III, Si is the standard deviation which can be calculated using Equation (3). 
formula
3
Daily rainfall values were then converted into hourly rainfall using an IDF curve based on Mononobe's formula: 
formula
4
where R is the daily rainfall (mm/day), tc is the time of concentration (hour) and I is the hourly rainfall (mm/hour).

Dimension of recharge wells

Based on shape, there are two types of recharge well: rectangular and circular (Saleh 2011). Rectangular wells are preferred because the optimum volume that can be stored is higher than for circular wells (Maulani 2015). For this reason, the proposed recharge wells were simulated as rectangular. The depth of recharge wells was calculated using Sunjoto's equation (Saleh 2011): 
formula
5
where H is the water level inside the wells (m), H’ is the water level in wells filled with materials (m), Q is the flowrate (m3/hour), f is the geometric factor for rectangular wells (m) , K is soil permeability (m/hour), T is rainfall duration per hour (=3,600 seconds), and b/B is the length of the rectangular well. As control, the maximum depth is assumed to be 5 meter, as this is the maximum depth recommended by the National Standard of Indonesia in 2002.
Estimation of the flowrate (Q) is calculated using the Rational Equation 
formula
6
where Q is flowrate (m3/second), C is runoff coefficient (here, 0.75), I is rainfall intensity (mm/hour), A is catchment area (km2). Because it was considered easier for local communities to adopt and construct recharge wells, two simulated areas of 100 m2 and 50 m2 were used here for the catchment area. Rainfall intensity was designed for a two-year return period (Chow et al. 1988).

As a model area for proposing the recharge wells design over the Ciliwung Watershed, a specific location was selected. The regions around Bojong Gede and Cibinong represented the middle area of Ciliwung Watershed was employed. The area was categorized as qualified land and has a composite runoff-coefficient of about 0.75.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Soil permeability

The average value of soil permeability from each sampling point based on laboratory test is presented in Table 4.

Table 4

Result of soil permeability test

Sampling Point Soil Hydrology Soil Permeability, K
 
cm/s cm/h 
Jogjogan 1.378 × 10−4 0.496 
Padjajaran Regency 0.600 × 10−4 0.216 
Universitas Indonesia 0.362 × 10−4 0.130 
Sukapura 0.838 × 10−4 0.302 
Sampling Point Soil Hydrology Soil Permeability, K
 
cm/s cm/h 
Jogjogan 1.378 × 10−4 0.496 
Padjajaran Regency 0.600 × 10−4 0.216 
Universitas Indonesia 0.362 × 10−4 0.130 
Sukapura 0.838 × 10−4 0.302 

Table 4 shows that the middle area of Ciliwung Watershed has the lowest soil permeability. Meanwhile, the downstream area of Ciliwung Watershed has higher soil permeability than the middle area because it has less clay content of soil. The soil permeability test results in upstream area of Ciliwung Watershed shows the highest permeability values.

Because of Bojong Gede and Cibinong located in between of Soil Hydrology B and C, and occupied similar land utilization, the value of soil permeability is assumed of the average soil permeability in the middle area of Ciliwung Watershed (represented by Padjajaran Regency and Universitas Indonesia) which is around 0.481 × 10−4 cm/s.

Land suitability map for construction of recharge wells

A land suitability map for recharge wells in the Ciliwung Watershed was created by overlaying several related maps in ArcGIS, as presented in Figure 2. Six levels of land suitability can be distinguished from maximum to minimum: Highly Qualified Land, Qualified Land, Enough to Qualify, Less Qualified Land, Not Qualified Land, and Highly Unqualified Land. Overall, the qualified land is located upstream, and the less qualified land is located downstream. Highly qualified land for construction of recharge wells is available in Jogjogan, Cisarua Region (colored green), which returned ideal assessment results. This region is composed of rocks and soil with high permeability and low runoff value, with slopes less than 11%, high rainfall intensity, and deep groundwater levels. The second order of qualified land is located in Northern Cisarua to Cibinong Region. This land is composed of rocks and soil with moderate to high permeability, low potential runoff, deep solum, moderate to high rainfall intensity, deep groundwater levels, and qualified slopes. Land classified as enough to qualify is distributed from Northern Cibinong, Depok to Kramat Jati. This land is composed of rocks and soil with low permeability, moderate potential runoff, very deep solum, moderate rainfall intensity, deep groundwater levels, and qualified slopes. Less qualified land is available in the northern part of the Ciliwung Watershed (from Johar Baru to the northern boundary). This land is composed of soil and rocks with low permeability, high potential runoff, very low rainfall intensity and shallow to very shallow groundwater levels. Other unqualified land is located mainly in the Southern Ciliwung Watershed (southern part of Cisarua and Gede Pangarango mountains). The land is composed of rocks and soil with low permeability, high potential runoff, deep solum, and very high rainfall intensity, with steep to very steep slopes. The highly unqualified land is found in the upstream and downstream areas of the Ciliwung Watershed. In the upstream area (southern part), the land is predominantly non-municipal and is utilized for agriculture, plantation and forests, characterized mainly by very steep slopes. Land on the other side, in the downstream area (northern part), is predominantly municipal and is used for housing, office, markets, and hotels. These areas require different methods of groundwater conservation.
Figure 2

Map of land suitability for recharge wells in the Ciliwung Watershed.

Figure 2

Map of land suitability for recharge wells in the Ciliwung Watershed.

Evaluation of existing recharge wells in Jakarta region

According to the Industrial and Energy Agency of Indonesia, there are 5,672 developed recharge wells in Jakarta, of which about 3,064 are located in the Ciliwung Watershed. To evaluate land suitability for the existing wells in the Jakarta area (as part of the Ciliwung Watershed), the map in Figure 2 was overlaid with the existing recharge wells map for each district. The overlaid map of land suitability and existing recharge wells is shown in Figure 3.
Figure 3

Superposition of maps of land suitability and existing recharge wells in Jakarta region.

Figure 3

Superposition of maps of land suitability and existing recharge wells in Jakarta region.

Based on Figure 3, four classes of land suitability can be identified in the Jakarta region: highly unqualified land, not qualified land, less qualified land, and qualified land. The highly unqualified land is located mainly in the northern part of Jakarta, accounting for less than 1% of existing recharge wells. A further 8.9% of existing recharge wells are found in the unqualified land in the districts of Cempaka Putih, Johar Baru, and Pulo Gadung. About 42.3% and 48% recharge wells are developed in less qualified land and enough to qualify land, respectively. It is clear, then, that more than 80% of existing recharge wells in Jakarta are constructed on land of moderate suitability (enough to qualify land and less qualified land) while the remaining wells are equally distributed across highly unqualified and unqualified land.

Design criteria for recharge wells model

A simple calculation involving Equations (2)–(6) illustrates the preferred design of recharge wells to be constructed in the selected areas of the Ciliwung Watershed. Both individual and communal rectangular recharge wells were simulated, and the results are presented in Table 5.

Table 5

Proposed dimension of rectangular recharge wells

Parameter Value
 
Unit 
Singular Communal 
Runoff coefficient, c 0.75 0.75 – 
Rainfall intensity, I 28.4 28.4 mm/hour 
Catchment area at Bojong Gede and Cibinong, A 100 600 m2 
Design discharge, Q 0.000592 0.003553 m3/second 
Geometric factor, f – 
Soil permeability, K 1.73 1.73 mm/hour 
Width of recharge wells, B 
Length of recharge wells, b 
Height of recharge wells, H 2.1 3.2 
Parameter Value
 
Unit 
Singular Communal 
Runoff coefficient, c 0.75 0.75 – 
Rainfall intensity, I 28.4 28.4 mm/hour 
Catchment area at Bojong Gede and Cibinong, A 100 600 m2 
Design discharge, Q 0.000592 0.003553 m3/second 
Geometric factor, f – 
Soil permeability, K 1.73 1.73 mm/hour 
Width of recharge wells, B 
Length of recharge wells, b 
Height of recharge wells, H 2.1 3.2 

The designed dimensions for rectangular recharge wells (width and length) are 1 meter for single wells and 2 meters for communal. The estimated heights of recharge wells (singular and communal) are 2.1 meters and 3.2 meters, respectively. These heights are still below the maximum recommended by the Indonesian National Standard (2002) for recharge well construction.

Implications for future development plan for recharge wells

Suitability land base

In the Ciliwung Watershed, some areas of the Jakarta region do not meet the qualifying criteria for construction of recharge wells. According to the land suitability map, these areas have shallow groundwater levels and are mainly categorized as group C soil hydrology and highly unqualified land. Any qualifying land in the Jakarta region is distributed around the Pasar Minggu, Ciracas, Pasar Rebo, and Jagakarsa areas, as shown in Figure 3. According to Figure 2, the optimal sites for recharge well construction are in Cisarua (around Ciawi and Citeko), Bogor.

Proposed design

Based on the simulated design of well dimensions, a rectangular type can be proposed for both individual and communal recharge wells. Given the shallow groundwater levels in the Jakarta region, the rectangular well is preferred to the circular type because it requires less depth (Maulani 2015). The following are the proposed design for recharge wells:
  • 1) Rectangular singular recharge wells:

    • length and width 1 m; depth 2.1 m; covered area 100 m2 (Figure 4(a)); maximum recharge well depth ≤3 m.

  • 2) Rectangular communal recharge wells:

    • length and width 2 m; depth 3.2 m; covered area 600 m2 (Figure 4(b)); maximum recharge well depth ≤5 m.

Figure 4

Proposed design of rectangular recharge wells: (a) Singular; (b) Communal.

Figure 4

Proposed design of rectangular recharge wells: (a) Singular; (b) Communal.

Proposed materials and components for designated recharge wells (adopted from the Department of Settlement and Regional Infrastructure 2002) are presented in Table 6.

Table 6

Materials and components for singular and communal rectangular recharge wells construction

Singular
 
Communal
 
Material for recharge wells Components Material for recharge wells Components 
Reinforced concrete plate with thickness of 10 cm, mixture of 1 cement: 2 concrete sand: 3 gravel Well cover Reinforced concrete plate with thickness of 10 cm, mixture of 1 cement: 2 concrete sand: 3 gravel Well cover 
Pair of ½ brick mixture 1: 4, Space of 10 cm, without lining Top of the wall of the recharge wells and the bottom part of the wells Precast reinforced concrete with diameter of 100 cm, porous well Top of the wall of the recharge well and bottom part of the wells. 
Crushed stones with size of 10–20 cm Filler of the well Crushed stones with the size of 10–20 cm Filler of the well 
PVC pipes and its fitting with the diameter of 110 mm. Inlet and outlet water channel PVC pipes with diameter size of 110 mm. Inlet and outlet water channel 
Singular
 
Communal
 
Material for recharge wells Components Material for recharge wells Components 
Reinforced concrete plate with thickness of 10 cm, mixture of 1 cement: 2 concrete sand: 3 gravel Well cover Reinforced concrete plate with thickness of 10 cm, mixture of 1 cement: 2 concrete sand: 3 gravel Well cover 
Pair of ½ brick mixture 1: 4, Space of 10 cm, without lining Top of the wall of the recharge wells and the bottom part of the wells Precast reinforced concrete with diameter of 100 cm, porous well Top of the wall of the recharge well and bottom part of the wells. 
Crushed stones with size of 10–20 cm Filler of the well Crushed stones with the size of 10–20 cm Filler of the well 
PVC pipes and its fitting with the diameter of 110 mm. Inlet and outlet water channel PVC pipes with diameter size of 110 mm. Inlet and outlet water channel 

CONCLUSION

A land suitability map for the construction of recharge wells was developed by overlaying several thematic maps, using ArcGIS 10.1. The results show that 80% of existing recharge wells in the Jakarta region (part of the Ciliwung Watershed) are constructed on enough to qualify land and less qualified land; the remaining 10% of existing wells are constructed on highly unqualified and unqualified land. The land suitability map offers a guide for future construction of more effective recharge wells. It is suggested that the construction of recharge wells in the Ciliwung Watershed should be concentrated in Cisarua, Bogor. The recommended type of well (singular and communal) is rectangular. Further study is urgently required to evaluate the effectiveness of recharge wells in the field.

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