The decentralized wastewater management utilizing existing infrastructure and low-cost natural treatment processes has a large potential in Vietnam. Centralized wastewater collection and treatment systems are often not affordable. Currently the septic tank is the most common on-site wastewater treatment facility in Vietnam. Nevertheless it has a limited treatment performance. The Improved Septic Tank, also known as Baffled Septic Tank with or without Anaerobic Filter (BASTAF or BAST) represents a valuable and promising alternative to the conventional septic tank. Results of laboratory- and pilot-scale research on BAST and BASTAF systems show that at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 days the 3-chamber BAST followed by Anaerobic Filter significantly increased the removal efficiencies in terms of BOD, COD and TSS in comparison with a conventional septic tank of the same size. Average treatment efficiencies of 80–90% in terms of BOD, COD and TSS can be achieved. Another component of the study showed that post-treatment of BASTAF effluent in a 2-stage vertical flow constructed wetland (CW) planted with locally available macrophytes allowed the achievement of level A, Vietnamese standard for wastewater discharge in terms of COD, BOD5, TSS, TN, NH4-N and T-P. Results of this study are now being implemented in different provinces inVietnam.
Baffled Septic Tank with Anaerobic Filter (BASTAF) and Vertical Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland for Domestic Wastewater Treatment in Vietnam
Viet-Anh Nguyen, Antoine Morel, Karin Tonderski; Baffled Septic Tank with Anaerobic Filter (BASTAF) and Vertical Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetland for Domestic Wastewater Treatment in Vietnam. Water Practice and Technology 1 December 2010; 5 (4): wpt2010100. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wpt.2010.100
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