While large centralized sanitation projects are not affordable for most cases in urban and rural areas, the only way to increase sanitation coverage, especially for the poor, is to implement low-cost alternatives with decentralized sanitation management schemes where local community, administrative authorities and private sectors are involved in the decision making as well as in the exploitation process. Despite of that, there are some reasons discussed why decentralized wastewater management concept and its application is still not widely disseminated throughout Vietnam. Among institutional and managerial aspects there are weaknesses of environmental pollution control capacity at different, especially local levels, limitations of existing Vietnamese environmental standard system, and lacking of incentive measures to encourage consultants to go for the decentralized wastewater concept, as well as to force polluters to improve their situation. In term of finance, discussed pints are low wastewater fee, and limited participation of private sector in the business. In technical aspects, there are limited information of appropriate and proven technical options for different contexts, lessons on their performance and system setting up. Besides, difficulties in the household connection and in collection network are among factors. The paper also provides some examples of decentralized alternatives implemented in different sanitation projects at different scales in Vietnam.

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