A real scale hybrid constructed wetland (CW) system (656 m2), with a configuration of VFA-VFB-HF beds constructed in series is operating since November 2006 in northern Hokkaido, Japan. The system was experimented to assess its capability in purifying 4.5 m3d−1 of high strength milking parlor wastewater under colder climate. Annual mean air temperature at site was recorded as 6.4 oC (extremes vary as -22.8 oC at lowest and 30.6 oC at highest). From the monthly sampling from November 2006 to January 2010, average loading and removal rates of TSS, CODcr, BOD5, TN and TP were 5.4 g m−2 d−1 (98%), 30.3 g m−2 d−1 (88%), 11.5 g m 2 d−1 (89%), 1.2 g m−2 d−1 (76.4%) and 0.2 g m−2 d−1 (76%). System did not stop for a single day, efficiently worked even during snow covered periods and was tolerant to the load fluctuations.
Potential of hybrid constructed wetland system in treating milking parlor wastewater under cold climatic conditions in northern Hokkaido, Japan
P. K. Sharma, T. Inoue, K. Kato, H. Ietsugu, K. Tomita, T. Nagasawa; Potential of hybrid constructed wetland system in treating milking parlor wastewater under cold climatic conditions in northern Hokkaido, Japan. Water Practice and Technology 1 September 2011; 6 (3): wpt2011052. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/wpt.2011.052
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