By 2050, over 40% of the global population could face severe water stress. The 2030 Agenda explicitly integrates water resources, supply, and sanitation, emphasizing sustainability for present and future generations. Non-revenue water (NRW) creates a barrier to sustainability through energy, water loss, and money not collected through water bills. However, NRW is well recognized by water service providers, and a comprehensive solution is lacking. Addressing NRW is vital to sustainable operations and achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This desk literature review investigates NRW's links with SDGs, highlighting global and local impacts, flameworking interconnections, and revealing economic, social, and environmental consequences. The study revealed that NRW not only aligns with various SDGs, particularly SDG 6 and SDG 13, but also has synergies with other goals related to energy and sustainable consumption. Reducing NRW can achieve more sustainable and resilient water systems, and contribute to the broader SDG. The cost of NRW extends beyond the financial implications for water utilities. It also encompasses the economic impacts on industries and businesses, which impacts exceeded water productivity, increased operational costs, and economic development constraints.

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