Groundwater is a vital source of safe drinking water in Bangladesh and most South Asian countries. The study aimed to identify the sources and assess the contamination of Fe, Mn, and Pb in groundwater. The study considered published articles, reports, and data repositories of concerned departments over the past two decades using various search engines, including Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct, Google Scholar, etc. The study results showed the concentrations of Fe, Mn, and Pb in groundwater exceeded 55.93, 75.44, and 37.50%, respectively, of different standards, including the World Health Organization and United Nations Environmental Protection Agency. The concentrations of Fe, Mn, and Pb ranged from 0.003 to 16.6, 0.00063 to 3.11, and 0.0006 to 3.01 mg/L, respectively, and followed the order Fe > Mn > Pb in the groundwater of Bangladesh. Sources of Fe and Mn in groundwater are mostly geogenic in origin, while Pb contamination in groundwater is anthropogenic and derives from industry dust piles, vehicle exhaust discharge, lead pipes, faucets, fixtures, and batteries. The higher levels of heavy metals in groundwater cause health and environmental hazards. The study recommended that the higher concentrations of Fe, Mn, and Pb in groundwater make it unsuitable for drinking purposes and should be treated before consumption.

  • Higher concentrations of Fe, Mn, and Pb were in groundwater.

  • The sources of Fe and Mn in groundwater are mostly geogenic.

  • Pb contamination in groundwater was anthropogenic.

  • The higher levels of these heavy metals in groundwater concern human health.

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