Abstract

Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental estrogen that occurs widely in the aquatic environment and causes feminization to various species, including fishes and gastropods. This study aims to develop the water quality criteria for BPA in the marine environment using the species sensitivity distribution (SSD) methodology from a scientific basis. Both acute and chronic toxicity data tested with saltwater species resident to China were collected. Additional tests were conducted to supplement toxicity data with local saltwater biota, including mollusk (Ruditapes philippinarum) and fish species (Scophthalmus maximus and Pagrosomus major). Based on SSD modelling, the criterion maximum concentration of BPA was estimated to be 273 μg/L. The criterion continuous concentration (CCC) for reproductive and non-reproductive effects was calculated to be 0.46 μg/L and 4.90 μg/L, respectively. Based on the derived criteria, the acute risk of BPA in coastal waters of China was determined to be negligible with RQs (risk quotients) of <0.01. The chronic risk was however much higher with RQs of up to 0.4 and 4.3 based on non-reproductive and reproductive CCC, respectively. The ecological risk assessment for BPA based on reproductive CCC can, therefore, better protect the safety of marine species.

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