Abstract

Stormwater ponds (SWPs) are widely utilized for flood and water quality control. Low-flow rates are common in SWPs, sometimes causing wind-driven currents to become the dominant hydrodynamic force during ice-free periods. Hence, it is essential to understand the influence of the wind-induced flow on stratification and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in shallow SWPs to predict the performance and water quality of these systems. The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of wind-driven circulation on the spatial distribution of DO in an SWP using a numerical model. A bottom-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) was utilized to measure small wind-induced currents and to validate a hydrodynamic model, which suggested that a wind-dominated circulation was generated even with the moderate wind speed. Countercurrents opposite in the direction to surface wind-generated flow were also present. The DO model demonstrated that complete mixing can be produced by higher wind speed, leading to fully oxic conditions throughout the water column (7.00 mg/L DO or higher), wherein low DO water at depth was carried to the surface by upwelling circulation and was possibly replenished during the surface transportation. This sheds some light on the impact of wind-induced mixing on the water quality in shallow SWPs.

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