The future development of the activated sludge process depends to a large extent upon a basic understanding of the kinetics of the biological processes involved and an evaluation of the effects of various factors on these kinetics. A realistic evaluation of the effects of such variables as influent quality and quantity, presence of toxic materials, shock loads, sludge age, pH, etc., on the activated sludge process can be made only if the kinetics of biological oxidation are well defined and reproducible under normal conditions. In addition, a knowledge of the kinetics for a given waste and sludge, particularly in the case of industrial wastes, should provide a more meaningful approach to process design.

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