This study examined the effect of polyphosphate on removal of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as nonylphenol and bisphenol-A by activated carbons. It was found that polyphosphate aided in the removal of nonylphenol and bisphenol- A. Polyphosphate reacted with nonylphenol, likely through dipole-dipole interaction, which then improved the nonylphenol removal. Calcium interfered with this reaction by causing competition. It was found that polyphosphate could accumulate on carbon while treating a river. The accumulated polyphosphate then aided nonylphenol removal. The extent of accumulation was dependent on the type of carbon. The accumulation occurred more extensively with the wood-based used carbon than with the coal-based used carbon due to the surface charge of the carbon. The negatively charged wood-based carbon attracted the positively charged calcium-polyphosphate complex more strongly than the uncharged coal-based carbon. The polyphosphate-coated activated carbon was also effective in nonylphenol removal. The effect was different depending on the type of carbon. Polyphosphate readily attached onto the wood-based carbon due to its high affinity for polyphosphate. The attached polyphosphate then improved the nonylphenol removal. However, the coating failed to attach polyphosphate onto the coal-based carbon. The nonylphenol removal performance of the coal-based carbon remained unchanged after the polyphosphate coating.