Textile dyes are causing serious environmental problems in the world. The treatment of dyes from textile wastewater is necessary to protect the environment. Adsorbents with high adsorption potential from local materials are required to solve these problems. In this study, the treatment of acid yellow 17 dye from aqueous solutions was carried out using an activated bone char, collected from slaughterhouses. The dye removal performance was measured using a UV-Vis spectrometer. Adsorption experiments were carried out in a batch process under different operating conditions including initial dye concentration, adsorbent dose, contact time, and solution pH. From the experimental data, the maximum dye removal efficiency of 91.43% was achieved at an optimum pH of 2, contact time of 120 min, initial dye concentration of 50 mg/L, and adsorbent dose of 20 g/L. Adsorption models: adsorption isotherm and adsorption kinetics of acid yellow 17 dye onto the activated animal bone char, the data fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm model (R2 = 0.9245) and pseudo-second-order model (R2 = 0.9967), respectively. This study indicated that the activated bone char, which is obtained from animal slaughterhouses and discharged as waste into the environment has a high potential to remove acid yellow 17 dye from polluted water.

  • Activated bone char (ABC) was prepared from animal bones using H3PO4.

  • Batch adsorption experiments were carried out under different operating parameters.

  • The treatment potential of AY-17 dye by ABC was determined at optimum conditions.

  • Kinetic and isotherm studies of AY-17 dye treatment onto ABC were investigated.

  • Adsorption potential of ABC for the treatment of AY-17 dye was compared with other adsorbents.

Graphical Abstract

Graphical Abstract
Graphical Abstract

Dyes are compounds used to color various substances like fabrics, paper, plastics, leather, food, hair, drugs, etc. The colored wastewaters of these industries are harmful to the aquatic life in rivers and lakes due to reduced light penetration and also the presence of extremely poisonous metal ions in the dye-polluted water (Ardila-Leal et al. 2021). The colorants can be classified into natural and synthetic dyes. The latter are easy to produce and are known for their fastness, which makes them more widely used than natural dyes (Yaseen & Scholz 2019). Dyes can also be classified as cationic (basic dyes), anionic (reactive and acidic dyes), and non-ionic (disperse dyes and vat dyes) (Benkhaya et al. 2020).

Color is the first indicator of contamination to be recognized in wastewater (Barka et al. 2009). Dye wastewater is usually characterized by several contaminants such as color, acids, bases, toxic compounds, and dissolved solids. Color is the most noticeable contaminant, even at very low concentrations, and it needs to be removed or decolorized before the wastewater can be discharged. Various methods for dye removal can be divided into three categories, including biological, physical, and chemical methods such as oxidation, electrochemical destruction, adsorption by activated carbon, ion exchange, membrane filtration, and coagulation (Rebah & Siddeeg 2017). Among these water treatment techniques, adsorption is superior to other techniques for water reuse in terms of initial cost, flexibility, and simplicity of design, ease of operation, and insensitivity to toxic pollutants. It also does not result in the formation of harmful substances (Mousa & Taha 2015). Adsorption is a natural process by which molecules of a dissolved compound collect on and adhere to the surface of an adsorbent solid. There are different adsorbents prepared from locally available materials, including agricultural waste, animal bones, rocks, etc. (Alemu et al. 2018; Arora 2019; Ambaye et al. 2021; Hamad & Idrus 2022). Activated carbons from different types of agricultural solid waste including bamboo, rice husk, rubber-wood, sawdust, oil palm shell, orange fruit peels, grass wastes, and corn cob have been successfully developed previously (De Gisi et al. 2016; Georgieva et al. 2020; Ghorbani et al. 2020; Loulidi et al. 2020). Rocks also have good adsorption potential for the removal of different contaminants in polluted water (Alemu et al. 2019; Lee et al. 2021; An et al. 2022). Moreover, the need to identify low-cost materials for color removal is important to retain dyeing in industrial applications (Al-Ghouti et al. 2003).

Bone char (BC) is made from cheap bovine bone waste products with a porous hydroxyapatite structure. It has been highly regarded as a green (nontoxic), effective (high adsorption potential), low cost, ease of preparation, and easily re-generable adsorbent to remove various organic and inorganic contaminants in water (Soliman & Moustafa 2020; Medellin-Castillo et al. 2021). Due to this fact, the use of BC gained increasing interest for the treatment of contaminants in polluted water. BC has been widely used in fluoride treatment processes (Alkurdi et al. 2019; Fung et al. 2021; Sawangjang et al. 2021), heavy metal (Medellin-Castillo et al. 2020; Olaoye et al. 2021), and various types of dye removal (Reynel-Avila et al. 2016; Moura et al. 2018; Cruz et al. 2020; Kadhom et al. 2020; Al-Gheethi et al. 2022).

AY-17 dye (Figure 1) is mostly used in the paper, food, and textile dyes industries. The use of acid dyes was prohibited, due to their carcinogenic nature. Although this dye has a risk to human and animal health, it remains in use, especially in the textile industry. It is also used for the production of personal care, laundry, and cleaning agents (Jedynak et al. 2019). Therefore, treatment of AY-17 dye in wastewater is very important to alleviate its impact on the environment using locally available materials like BC discarded as solid waste in landfill in many developing countries in the world (Figure 1).

The aim of this study is to investigate the removal efficiency of AY-17 dye onto ABC in a batch process under different operating conditions (pH, adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration, and contact time). Equilibrium isotherm and kinetic studies were also done in order to define the adsorption process.

Chemicals and materials

Acid yellow dye 17 powder (dye content 60%; empirical chemical formula C16H10Cl2N4Na2O7S2 and molecular weight 802.10 g/mol), H3PO4 (85%, Merck), HCl (37%, Sigma Aldrich), and NaOH (99%, Scientific Lab Chemicals) were used to adjust the pH of the solutions during adsorption experiments), distilled water (used for solution preparation and rinsing purposes). Animal bones (cows and oxen) collected from slaughterhouses in Bahir Dar City were used for the production of activated bone char (ABC). KBr was used for Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) spectra development of an adsorbent.

Preparation of ABC

The bone samples collected from slaughterhouses were boiled to eliminate organic substances and collagen to avoid soot formation during the pyrolysis process. It was rinsed with distilled water, sun-dried, crushed using a jaw crusher, and pyrolyzed using a muffle furnace (Nabertherm B180, Germany) at 600 °C for 2 h to produce BC (Alkurdi et al. 2019). The BC produced was activated by using 1 M phosphoric acid (85%) for 24 h. Consequently, it was filtered off, rinsed with distilled water, and heated at 105 °C for 1 h to remove the water. The ABC was dried in an oven at 105 °C for 6 h, crushed using mortar and pestle, and sieved between 1 and 1.7 mm diameter size and prepared for the next adsorption steps.

FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy ABC

The FT-IR is used to identify the functional groups that might be involved in the binding of dye ions on the surface of the adsorbent. The functional groups of the BC were determined using a FT-IR spectrometer (Spectrum 65 FT-IR, PerkinElmer) in the wavenumber range of 400–4,000 cm−1. First, the prepared adsorbent was mixed with KBr (1 mg: 100 mg) and then finely pulverized and put into a pellet-forming dye to identify the functional groups present in the ABC before and after adsorption (Kulkarni et al. 2018). A scanning electron microscope (SEM – JEOL, JSM 6360 LV) was used to investigate the surface morphology of the ABC. A thin layer of sputter was coated on the adsorbent to prevent charging during SEM imaging.

Adsorption experiments

1 g of the acid yellow 17 dye powder was dissolved in 1 L of distilled water to prepare a 1,000 mg/L stock solution. It was kept in dark-colored glass bottles for further batch adsorption experiments through serial dilution. Batch experiments were conducted in a series of 250-mL beakers containing 100-mL solution and adsorbent using a rotary incubator shaker at 200 rpm (Excella E-24 Model). The pH of the solution was measured with a pH meter (Jenway 430 Model). The required pH was adjusted with 0.1 M HCl or 0.1 M NaOH solution. To evaluate dye removal efficiency, the effects of adsorbent dose, contact time, pH, and initial concentrations of the dye were investigated by varying any one of the process parameters and keeping the other parameters constant. The various parameters investigated include pH in the range of 2–11, contact time of 10–150 min, initial dye concentration of 50–300 mg/L, and adsorbent dosages (10–60 g/L) (Deshannavara et al. 2021; Harja et al. 2022; Mekuria et al. 2022). After the reaction, the solution was filtered with Whatman filter paper (0.45 μm pore diameter) and the filtrate's absorbance was determined by using a UV–Vis spectrometer (Perkin Elmer Lambda 35) at a wavelength of 401.5 nm.

The R (% percentage of removal) of AY-17 was calculated using the following equation.
formula
(1)
The amount of AY-17 dye adsorbed, at time t (qt) and at equilibrium (qe), with Equations (2) and (3), respectively:
formula
(2)
formula
(3)
where qt represents the amounts of AY-17 dye adsorbed (mg/g) at time t and qe denotes adsorption at equilibrium (mg/g). Co, Ct, and Ce represent the concentration of AY-17 dye initially, at time t, and at an equilibrium (mg/L), respectively; m is the mass of the adsorbent (g); and V is the volume of the solution (L).

FT-IR analysis of ABC

Figure 2 displays the FT-IR spectra of ABC before and after the adsorption of dye on its surface. FT-IR spectrum of BC is recorded over a wavenumber range of 400–4,000 cm−1. The FT-IR bands of ABC produced at 3,491 and 3,560 cm−1 indicate the presence of O–H stretching vibration. The band intensity decreased after dye adsorption. This might be the ion exchange process between the dye and OH groups in the ABC. The band at 2,372 cm−1 indicates the C–H stretch of the ABC. The stretching modes of were observed at 1,409 and 1,462 cm−1. Moreover, the bending vibrations of were also observed at 730, 794, and 872 cm−1 (Cho et al. 2013; Patel et al. 2015). The peaks produced at 525, 993, and 1,063 cm−1 indicated the phosphate group () (Markovic et al. 2004). The sharp peak produced at 1,654 cm−1 indicates amide I vibration (Diez et al. 2022). The peak at 577 cm−1 indicates the presence of Ca in the ABC (Rojas-Mayorga et al. 2015). The FT-IR spectrum of the adsorbent after AY-17 dye adsorption indicates a slight peak shift from their positions with associated intensity changes. This indicates the involvement of some functional groups in the adsorption of AY-17 dye ions on the surface of the ABC.
Figure 1

Molecular structure of AY-17 dye.

Figure 1

Molecular structure of AY-17 dye.

Close modal
Figure 2

FT-IR spectra of ABC before and after adsorption of acid yellow dye.

Figure 2

FT-IR spectra of ABC before and after adsorption of acid yellow dye.

Close modal

SEM analysis of ABC

SEM is widely used to study the morphological feature and surface characteristics of the adsorbent material (Elkady et al. 2015). Figure 3 indicates SEM images of ABC at different magnifications. The micrographs of the ABC sample show the occurrence of irregular and highly porous surfaces. It can be seen from the micrographs that the external surface of the activated carbons has cracks, crevices, and some grains of various sizes in large holes (Nwankwo 2018). The occurrence of irregular and highly porous surfaces of the ABC indicates the favorability of the surface for adsorption of AY-17 dye.
Figure 3

SEM image of ABC at different magnifications.

Figure 3

SEM image of ABC at different magnifications.

Close modal

Adsorption studies

Effects of adsorbent dosage

The effect of adsorbent dose on adsorption was studied using different adsorbent doses in the range of 10–60 g/L. An increase of adsorbent dose from 10 to 60 g/L, percent of adsorption of AY-17 dye on ABC increased from 85.20 to 91.43% (Figure 4). The cause for this increase of adsorption is the greater availability of adsorption sites of the ABC for AY-17 ions. After the maximum removal (91.43%), the increment of adsorbent dose does not show any significant change in the percentage removal of the dye.
Figure 4

Effects of adsorbent dose on the removal efficiency of AY-17 dye on ABC (initial dye concentration: 50 mg/L; contact time: 120 min, and pH: 2).

Figure 4

Effects of adsorbent dose on the removal efficiency of AY-17 dye on ABC (initial dye concentration: 50 mg/L; contact time: 120 min, and pH: 2).

Close modal

Effects of contact time on dye adsorption

The effect of contact time (10–150 min) for the adsorption of AY-17 dye onto ABC is shown in Figure 5. The experimental data indicated that the percentage of removal of AY-17 dye increased with increase contact time. In the first 30 min, the percentage of removal of AY-17 dye was very high and thereafter, it proceeds at a slower rate and reached equilibrium at 120 min. The fast treatment of this dye in the first 30 min might be due to the availability of vacant sites at the ABC surface (Pathania et al. 2017). This reaction was observed due to the binding of AY-17 dye to the ABC active sites and functional groups, which gradually reached to saturation.
Figure 5

Effect of contact time on the adsorption of AY-17 dye on ABC (initial concentration: 50 mg/L; adsorbent dose: 2 g; contact time: 10–150 min, and pH: 2).

Figure 5

Effect of contact time on the adsorption of AY-17 dye on ABC (initial concentration: 50 mg/L; adsorbent dose: 2 g; contact time: 10–150 min, and pH: 2).

Close modal

Effects of pH

The effect of pH on the adsorption of AY-17 dye on ABC is shown in Figure 6. It was observed that pH influences the ABC surface dye-binding sites and the dye chemistry in water. The highest dye removal efficiency (91.92%) was observed at pH 2. The adsorption of ABC decreases from 91.92 to 66.66% with increasing pH from 2 to 11. The pH value of the dye solution affects the surface charge of the adsorbent (Asghar et al. 2015). The high removal of AY-17 dye at low pH indicates that the surface of ABC was highly protonated, which produced a good condition for the electrostatic interaction of reactive anionic AY-17 dye. The adsorption of AY-17 dye decreases as the pH increases. This might be due to the competitive effect of hydroxide ions and AY-17 dye anions to the surface of the ABC. Moreover, the surface of the ABC develops less positively charged ions which might reduce the electrostatic attractions between the ABC surface and the computing negatively charged species, lowering the adsorption efficiencies (Sheng et al. 2012). Although there was reduction in the removal efficiency of AY-17 dye with increasing pH, dye removal still continued with a rate of more than 65%. This might be due to an ion exchange between the hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2) in the BC with in the AY-17 dye solution (Sawangjang et al. 2021).
Figure 6

Effect of pH on the removal of acid yellow dye on ABC (initial AY-17 dye concentration: 50 mg/L; adsorbent dose: 2 g, and contact time: 120 min).

Figure 6

Effect of pH on the removal of acid yellow dye on ABC (initial AY-17 dye concentration: 50 mg/L; adsorbent dose: 2 g, and contact time: 120 min).

Close modal

Effect of initial AY-17 dye concentration

The effect of initial AY-17 dye concentration in the range of 50–300 mg/L was investigated on the ABC adsorbent. The percentage of AY-17 dye removal was decreased with an increase of initial dye concentration as shown in Figure 7. With an initial AY-17 dye concentration of 50–150 mg/L, there was a high percentage removal of AY-17 dye with a maximum of 91.314%. Above an initial concentration of 150 mg/L, the percentage of removal declined higher than before and reached 77.194% at 300 mg/L. This decrease in the removal efficiency might be due to a saturation of available active sites on the ABC adsorbent (Eren & Acar 2006).
Figure 7

Effect of initial AY-17 dye concentration onto ABC adsorption (adsorbent dose: 2 g; contact time: 120 min, and pH: 2).

Figure 7

Effect of initial AY-17 dye concentration onto ABC adsorption (adsorbent dose: 2 g; contact time: 120 min, and pH: 2).

Close modal

Adsorption isotherm studies

An adsorption isotherm focuses on the relationship between the amount of a substance adsorbed at the surface of an adsorbent in a solution at constant temperature. Adsorption isotherm studies helps to provide information about the adsorbent capacity to remove pollutants in a unit mass equation. There are two most commonly used isotherm equations (Langmuir and Freundlich) to analyze equilibrium data of solute between adsorbent and solute.

The Langmuir isotherm model

The Langmuir isotherm works for adsorption of an adsorbate in a solution as monolayer adsorption with finite number of identical sites and uniform energies (Langmuir 1916). This model was used to estimate of the maximum adsorption capacity of AY-17 dye corresponding to complete monolayer coverage on ABC surface. The experimental data are analyzed according to the linear form of the Langmuir isotherm Equation (4).
formula
(4)
where KL represents Langmuir adsorption equilibrium constant and qmax is the maximum adsorption capacity.

The linear plots of Ce/qe versus Ce suggest the applicability of the Langmuir isotherms for the removal of AY-17 dye onto ABC. The values of qmax and KL are obtained from the slopes and intercept of the linear plot of Ce/qe versus Ce.

The separation constant or equilibrium parameter (RL), was calculated from the Langmuir isotherm to get information about the favorability of adsorption of AY-17 dye onto the ABC adsorbent using Equation (5).
formula
(5)

The RL values indicate the favorability of adsorption: 0 < RL < 1, favorable; RL > 1, unfavorable; RL = 1, linear; and RL = 0, irreversible (Malik 2003).

The linear form of the Langmuir isotherm model of adsorption of Ay-17 dye onto ABC indicated a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9245 (Figure 8(a)). The Langmuir isotherm fits the experimental data very well and confirms the monolayer coverage of the AY-17 dye onto the ABC (qmax = 19.93 mg/g) and also the homogeneous distribution on the adsorbent surface. The separation factor (RL) was also calculated and found a value of 0.259. This value is found between 0 and 1, indicating that the adsorption of AY-17 dye on the surface of ABC is favorable.
Figure 8

(a) Langmuir and (b) Freundlich adsorption isotherms for adsorption of AY-17 dye onto ABC (pH: 2; adsorbent dose: 20 g/L; contact time: 120 min; and initial dye concentration: 50 mg/L).

Figure 8

(a) Langmuir and (b) Freundlich adsorption isotherms for adsorption of AY-17 dye onto ABC (pH: 2; adsorbent dose: 20 g/L; contact time: 120 min; and initial dye concentration: 50 mg/L).

Close modal

Freundlich isotherm model

The Freundlich adsorption model expresses the relationship between the quantity of a solute (adsorbate) adsorbed onto the surface of a solid (adsorbent) and the concentration of the solute in the liquid phase (Freundlich 1906). The equation is applicable for multilayer heterogeneous adsorption sites. The Freundlich isotherm model is mathematically expressed as:
formula
(6)
The linear form of Freundlich adsorption isotherm Equation (6) is:
formula
(7)
where KF and n denote Freundlich isotherm constant (mg/g) adsorption intensity, respectively. n in the range 2–10 represent good, 1–2 moderate, and less than 1 poor adsorption characteristics (Mallampati & Valiyaveettil 2013).

The Freundlich model was used to evaluate the adsorption of AY-17 dye onto ABC. The linear plot of the Freundlich model log qe versus log Ce indicated a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.650 (Figure 8(b)). The KF and n values are obtained are 3.309 and 9.099, respectively (Table 1). This indicated ABC produced a favorable condition for adsorption of AY-17 dye (Rita 2012).

Table 1

Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm parameters for adsorption of AY-17 dye onto ABC

AdsorbentLangmuir isotherm
Freundlich isotherm
R2qm (mg/g)KL (L/mg)RLKF (mg/g)nR2
ABC 0.9245 19.93 0.051 0.055 3.309 9.099 0.650 
AdsorbentLangmuir isotherm
Freundlich isotherm
R2qm (mg/g)KL (L/mg)RLKF (mg/g)nR2
ABC 0.9245 19.93 0.051 0.055 3.309 9.099 0.650 

The equilibrium isotherm studies of the adsorption of AY-17 dye on the ABC surface indicated that Langmuir isotherm with a better linear fitting (R2 = 0.953) than the Freundlich isotherm (R2 = 0.650). The separation factor (RL) also indicated a value of 0.259, which is between 0 and 1. This indicates the adsorption is favorable (Malik 2003).

Adsorption kinetics

Kinetic models are used to study the mechanism of sorption and rate-controlling steps, which helps select optimum operating conditions for the full-scale batch process. The kinetic parameters provide important information to predict adsorption rate, design and model the adsorption processes (Santhi et al. 2010). The kinetics of AY-17 dye adsorption onto ABC was analyzed using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models.

Pseudo-first-order is expressed mathematically (Lagergren 1898) as:
formula
(8)
The linear form of Equation (8) is:
formula
(9)
where K1 (min−1) is the pseudo-first-order rate constant and qt is the amount adsorbate adsorbed (mg/g) at equilibrium and at time t. K1 is evaluated from the plot of log(qeqt) versus t.
Pseudo-second-order kinetic model is expressed mathematically (Ho & McKay 1999) as:
formula
(10)
The linear equation form of (10) is:
formula
(11)
where K2 is a pseudo-second-order rate constant (g/mg h). It is obtained from the plot t/qt versus t.
The kinetics of AY-17 dye adsorption onto ABC adsorbent using pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models are shown in Figure 9(a) and 9(b) and Table 2. The R2 of the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models in this study are 0.617 and 0.9967, respectively. Pseudo-second-order model fitted well with the experimental data with a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9967. The value of the experimental adsorption capacity (qe, exp) was also in agreement with the calculated adsorption capacity (qe, cal) shown in Table 2. This kinetic study is also supported with other acid yellow dye adsorption studies as shown in Table 3.
Table 2

Pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order parameters for the adsorption of AY-17 dye onto ABC

Co (mg/ L)qe (exp.) (mg/g)Pseudo-first-order
Pseudo-second-order
K1 (1/min)qe (cal.) (mg/g)R2K2 (kg/mg. min)qe (cal.) (mg/g)R2
50 20.89 0.025 4.999  0.952 0.159 22.73 0.9967 
Co (mg/ L)qe (exp.) (mg/g)Pseudo-first-order
Pseudo-second-order
K1 (1/min)qe (cal.) (mg/g)R2K2 (kg/mg. min)qe (cal.) (mg/g)R2
50 20.89 0.025 4.999  0.952 0.159 22.73 0.9967 
Table 3

Comparison of adsorption capacity of ABC with other adsorbents for the treatment of AY-17 with their studied isotherm and kinetic models

AdsorbentCo (mg/L)pHqm (mg/g)Isotherm modelsKinetics modelReferences
Typha angustata L. 150 – FIM PSO Ashraf et al. (2013
AC from Euterpe oleracea 50 47.9 FIM PSO de Oliveira Lopes et al. (2022
AC from Solanum melongena 15 93.54 LIM PSO Kannaujiya et al. (2021
AC avocado seed powder 50 42.7 LIM PSO Munagapati et al. (2021
ABC 50 20.89 LM PSO This study 
AdsorbentCo (mg/L)pHqm (mg/g)Isotherm modelsKinetics modelReferences
Typha angustata L. 150 – FIM PSO Ashraf et al. (2013
AC from Euterpe oleracea 50 47.9 FIM PSO de Oliveira Lopes et al. (2022
AC from Solanum melongena 15 93.54 LIM PSO Kannaujiya et al. (2021
AC avocado seed powder 50 42.7 LIM PSO Munagapati et al. (2021
ABC 50 20.89 LM PSO This study 
Figure 9

The (a) pseudo-first-order and (b) pseudo-second-order plots of adsorption of AY-17 dye onto ABC.

Figure 9

The (a) pseudo-first-order and (b) pseudo-second-order plots of adsorption of AY-17 dye onto ABC.

Close modal

The treatment of AY-17 dye using ABC was compared with other adsorbents reported in the literature. The adsorption capacities and their experimental settings are indicated in Table 3. The ABC indicated good treatment potential of AY-17 in aqueous solutions. The availability of animal bones in abundance and its simple preparation might be important for the treatment of AY-17 dye in polluted water.

This study was conducted to investigate the removal efficiency of the ABC for the removal of AY-17 dye from aqueous solutions. The results of the experiment showed that most of the dye adsorption was done in the first 30 min of contact time, and an equilibrium was reached within 120 min. Batch studies were conducted under different operating parameters such as pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage, and initial dye concentration. The highest removal efficiency (91.43%) of AY-17 dye onto ABC was observed at optimum conditions of pH 2, adsorbent dosage of 20 g/L, contact time of 120 min, and initial dye concentration of 50 mg/L. This result indicated that ABC has a high potential to remove acid yellow 17 dye from polluted water. Generally, it can be concluded that animal bones, which are discarded as waste in developing countries and found in abundance in different waste dumping sites, can be used as an alternative option for the removal of AY-17 dye from textile wastewater.

The authors are grateful to Bahir Dar University for the financial support of this study.

All relevant data are included in the paper or its Supplementary Information.

The authors declare there is no conflict.

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