Dead-end ultrafiltration has proven itself as a technique for reclamation of backwash water of sand filters and as a pre-treatment step for spiral wound reverse osmosis. A direct result of dead-end filtration is a decreased flux caused by the accumulation of material in the membrane pores and on the membrane surface. Different cleaning techniques are used to remove this accumulated material. Recently a new technique has been introduced, the AirFlush. This technique makes use of air to create higher turbulence as compared to a water flush. At Delft University of Technology research has started into the fundamentals of the combined air- and water-flush. First a series of experiments has been carried out to determine the different flow patterns, followed by experiments to determine which air- and water-velocities give the best cleaning. Finally head loss experiments have been done to get information about the energy dissipated in the system. The results of the head loss experiments have been compared to the theoretical head loss calculated with the theory of heterogeneous two-phase flow.
Combined air-water flush in dead-end ultrafiltration
J.Q.J.C. Verbeck, G.I.M. Worm, H. Futselaar, J.C. van Dijk; Combined air-water flush in dead-end ultrafiltration. Water Science and Technology: Water Supply 1 June 2001; 1 (5-6): 393–402. doi: https://doi.org/10.2166/ws.2001.0139
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