This paper aims to explore the impacts of peaking factors on a water distribution system designed for a small city in Germany through model-based analysis. As a case study, the water distribution network was modelled by EPANET and then two specific studies were carried out. The first study tested corresponding system-wide influences on water age and energy consumption if the peaking factors used at design stage are inconsistent with ones in real situation. The second study inspected the possible relationship between the choice of peaking factors and budgets by comparing several different pipe configurations of the distribution system, obtained according to variety of peaking factors. Given the analysis results, the first study reveals that average water age will increase if peaking factors estimated at design stage are larger than real values in that specific system, and vice versa. In contrast, energy consumption will increase if peaking factors defined for system design are smaller than ones in real case, and vice versa. According to the second study, it might be possible to amplify peaking factors for design dramatically by a slight increase in the investment on this system. However, further study on budget estimation with more factors and detailed information considered should be carried out.

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